Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 12; 14(12):1215-1223.ER

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In Zambia, antibiotics are categorized as prescription-only medicines. Antibiotics dispensed without a prescription pose a public health threat, which is a concern. Consequently, the aim is to ascertain the extent of non-prescription sales and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia.

METHODS

The practice of non-prescription sale and dispensing were assessed in 73 randomly selected community retail pharmacies, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire with simulated case scenarios.

RESULTS

Majority (97%) stated that clients frequently requested non-prescribed antibiotics. Interviewees usually asked clients' indications (94%), counselled on dosing (96%) and suggested changes to antibiotic choices (97%). All (100%) dispensed non-prescribed antibiotics. Commonly dispensed antibiotics included amoxicillin (52%), cotrimoxazole (25%) and metronidazole (23%). Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics was significantly associated with interviewees' professional qualification in four out of five simulations.

CONCLUSION

Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics is widespread in Zambia. Concerted public and professional interventions are needed coupled with stronger regulatory enforcement to reduce this.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Pharmacy , University of Zambia , Lusaka , Zambia.b Medicine Usage in South Africa (MUSA), Faculty of Health Sciences , North-West University (Potchefstroom campus) , Potchefstroom , South Africa.c Division of Clinical Pharmacology , Karolinska Institute , Stockholm , Sweden. d Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences , University of Strathclyde , Glasgow , UK.e SUS Collaborating Centre - Health Technology Assessment & Excellence in Health, Department of Social Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy , Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.a Department of Pharmacy , University of Zambia , Lusaka , Zambia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27548801

Citation

Kalungia, Aubrey Chichonyi, et al. "Non-prescription Sale and Dispensing of Antibiotics in Community Pharmacies in Zambia." Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, vol. 14, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1215-1223.
Kalungia AC, Burger J, Godman B, et al. Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14(12):1215-1223.
Kalungia, A. C., Burger, J., Godman, B., Costa, J. O., & Simuwelu, C. (2016). Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 14(12), 1215-1223.
Kalungia AC, et al. Non-prescription Sale and Dispensing of Antibiotics in Community Pharmacies in Zambia. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14(12):1215-1223. PubMed PMID: 27548801.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia. AU - Kalungia,Aubrey Chichonyi, AU - Burger,Johanita, AU - Godman,Brian, AU - Costa,Juliana de Oliveira, AU - Simuwelu,Chimwemwe, Y1 - 2016/09/09/ PY - 2016/8/23/pubmed PY - 2017/10/31/medline PY - 2016/8/23/entrez KW - Antibiotics KW - Zambia KW - community pharmacy KW - dispensing KW - non-prescription sale SP - 1215 EP - 1223 JF - Expert review of anti-infective therapy JO - Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther VL - 14 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: In Zambia, antibiotics are categorized as prescription-only medicines. Antibiotics dispensed without a prescription pose a public health threat, which is a concern. Consequently, the aim is to ascertain the extent of non-prescription sales and dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies in Zambia. METHODS: The practice of non-prescription sale and dispensing were assessed in 73 randomly selected community retail pharmacies, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire with simulated case scenarios. RESULTS: Majority (97%) stated that clients frequently requested non-prescribed antibiotics. Interviewees usually asked clients' indications (94%), counselled on dosing (96%) and suggested changes to antibiotic choices (97%). All (100%) dispensed non-prescribed antibiotics. Commonly dispensed antibiotics included amoxicillin (52%), cotrimoxazole (25%) and metronidazole (23%). Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics was significantly associated with interviewees' professional qualification in four out of five simulations. CONCLUSION: Non-prescription sale and dispensing of antibiotics is widespread in Zambia. Concerted public and professional interventions are needed coupled with stronger regulatory enforcement to reduce this. SN - 1744-8336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27548801/Non_prescription_sale_and_dispensing_of_antibiotics_in_community_pharmacies_in_Zambia_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14787210.2016.1227702 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -