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An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Clin EEG Neurosci 2017; 48(4):235-242CE

Abstract

Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). These medications result in a normalization of the EEG. However, past research has found that complete normalization of the EEG is not always achieved. One reason for this may be that studies have used different medications interchangeably, or groups of subjects on different stimulants. This study investigated whether methylphenidate and dexamphetamine produce different levels of normalization of the EEG in children with AD/HD. Three groups of 20 boys participated in this study. There were 2 groups with a diagnosis of AD/HD; one group, good responders to methylphenidate, and the second, good responders to dexamphetamine. The third group was a normal control group. Baseline EEGs were recorded using an eyes-closed resting condition, and analyzed for total power and relative delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Subjects were placed on a 6-month trial of methylphenidate or dexamphetamine, after which a second EEG was recorded. At baseline, the children with AD/HD had elevated relative theta, less relative alpha and beta compared with controls. Baseline differences were found between the two medication groups, with the dexamphetamine group having greater EEG abnormalities than the methylphenidate group. The results indicate that good responders to methylphenidate and dexamphetamine have different EEG profiles when assessed before medication, and these differences may represent different underlying central nervous system deficits. The 2 medications were found to result in substantial normalization of the EEG, with no significant differences in EEG changes occurring between the 2 medications. This indicates that the degree of pretreatment EEG abnormality was the major factor contributing to the degree of normalization of the EEG. As good responders to the 2 medications appear to have different central nervous system abnormalities, it is recommended that stimulant medications be treated independently and not used interchangeably in research and treatment of AD/HD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Brain & Behaviour Research Institute and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.1 Brain & Behaviour Research Institute and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.1 Brain & Behaviour Research Institute and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.2 Sydney Developmental Clinic, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.2 Sydney Developmental Clinic, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27552823

Citation

Clarke, Adam R., et al. "An Investigation of Stimulant Effects On the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder." Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol. 48, no. 4, 2017, pp. 235-242.
Clarke AR, Barry RJ, Baker IE, et al. An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2017;48(4):235-242.
Clarke, A. R., Barry, R. J., Baker, I. E., McCarthy, R., & Selikowitz, M. (2017). An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 48(4), pp. 235-242. doi:10.1177/1550059416664657.
Clarke AR, et al. An Investigation of Stimulant Effects On the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2017;48(4):235-242. PubMed PMID: 27552823.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. AU - Clarke,Adam R, AU - Barry,Robert J, AU - Baker,Iris E, AU - McCarthy,Rory, AU - Selikowitz,Mark, Y1 - 2016/08/23/ PY - 2016/8/25/pubmed PY - 2018/3/20/medline PY - 2016/8/25/entrez KW - AD/HD KW - EEG KW - dexamphetamine KW - medication KW - methylphenidate KW - stimulants KW - treatment SP - 235 EP - 242 JF - Clinical EEG and neuroscience JO - Clin EEG Neurosci VL - 48 IS - 4 N2 - Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). These medications result in a normalization of the EEG. However, past research has found that complete normalization of the EEG is not always achieved. One reason for this may be that studies have used different medications interchangeably, or groups of subjects on different stimulants. This study investigated whether methylphenidate and dexamphetamine produce different levels of normalization of the EEG in children with AD/HD. Three groups of 20 boys participated in this study. There were 2 groups with a diagnosis of AD/HD; one group, good responders to methylphenidate, and the second, good responders to dexamphetamine. The third group was a normal control group. Baseline EEGs were recorded using an eyes-closed resting condition, and analyzed for total power and relative delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Subjects were placed on a 6-month trial of methylphenidate or dexamphetamine, after which a second EEG was recorded. At baseline, the children with AD/HD had elevated relative theta, less relative alpha and beta compared with controls. Baseline differences were found between the two medication groups, with the dexamphetamine group having greater EEG abnormalities than the methylphenidate group. The results indicate that good responders to methylphenidate and dexamphetamine have different EEG profiles when assessed before medication, and these differences may represent different underlying central nervous system deficits. The 2 medications were found to result in substantial normalization of the EEG, with no significant differences in EEG changes occurring between the 2 medications. This indicates that the degree of pretreatment EEG abnormality was the major factor contributing to the degree of normalization of the EEG. As good responders to the 2 medications appear to have different central nervous system abnormalities, it is recommended that stimulant medications be treated independently and not used interchangeably in research and treatment of AD/HD. SN - 2169-5202 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27552823/An_Investigation_of_Stimulant_Effects_on_the_EEG_of_Children_With_Attention_Deficit/Hyperactivity_Disorder_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1550059416664657?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -