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Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 11; 104(5):1209-1217.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Few prospective studies have examined dairy fat in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat and incident CVD in US adults.

DESIGN

We followed 43,652 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), 87,907 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012), and 90,675 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Dairy fat and other fat intakes were assessed every 4 y with the use of validated food-frequency questionnaires.

RESULTS

During 5,158,337 person-years of follow-up, we documented 14,815 incident CVD cases including 8974 coronary heart disease cases (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary disease) and 5841 stroke cases. In multivariate analyses, compared with an equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrates (excluding fruit and vegetables), dairy fat intake was not significantly related to risk of total CVD (for a 5% increase in energy from dairy fat, the RR was 1.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.05), coronary heart disease (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.09), or stroke (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.05) (P > 0.05 for all). In models in which we estimated the effects of exchanging different fat sources, the replacement of 5% of energy intake from dairy fat with equivalent energy intake from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or vegetable fat was associated with 24% (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.81) and 10% (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.93) lower risk of CVD, respectively, whereas the 5% energy intake substitution of other animal fat with dairy fat was associated with 6% increased CVD risk (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09).

CONCLUSIONS

The replacement of animal fats, including dairy fat, with vegetable sources of fats and PUFAs may reduce risk of CVD. Whether the food matrix may modify the effect of dairy fat on health outcomes warrants further investigation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Nutrition and. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.Departments of Nutrition and.Departments of Nutrition and. Channing Division of Network Medicine and.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.Departments of Nutrition and. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Channing Division of Network Medicine and.Departments of Nutrition and. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Channing Division of Network Medicine and.Departments of Nutrition and frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu. Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Channing Division of Network Medicine and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27557656

Citation

Chen, Mu, et al. "Dairy Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in 3 Cohorts of US Adults." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1209-1217.
Chen M, Li Y, Sun Q, et al. Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(5):1209-1217.
Chen, M., Li, Y., Sun, Q., Pan, A., Manson, J. E., Rexrode, K. M., Willett, W. C., Rimm, E. B., & Hu, F. B. (2016). Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(5), 1209-1217.
Chen M, et al. Dairy Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in 3 Cohorts of US Adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(5):1209-1217. PubMed PMID: 27557656.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. AU - Chen,Mu, AU - Li,Yanping, AU - Sun,Qi, AU - Pan,An, AU - Manson,JoAnn E, AU - Rexrode,Kathryn M, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Hu,Frank B, Y1 - 2016/08/24/ PY - 2016/03/10/received PY - 2016/07/28/accepted PY - 2016/11/3/pubmed PY - 2017/6/20/medline PY - 2016/8/26/entrez KW - animal fat KW - cardiovascular disease KW - dairy fat KW - prospective KW - vegetable fat SP - 1209 EP - 1217 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 104 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have examined dairy fat in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat and incident CVD in US adults. DESIGN: We followed 43,652 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), 87,907 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012), and 90,675 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Dairy fat and other fat intakes were assessed every 4 y with the use of validated food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: During 5,158,337 person-years of follow-up, we documented 14,815 incident CVD cases including 8974 coronary heart disease cases (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary disease) and 5841 stroke cases. In multivariate analyses, compared with an equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrates (excluding fruit and vegetables), dairy fat intake was not significantly related to risk of total CVD (for a 5% increase in energy from dairy fat, the RR was 1.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.05), coronary heart disease (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.09), or stroke (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.05) (P > 0.05 for all). In models in which we estimated the effects of exchanging different fat sources, the replacement of 5% of energy intake from dairy fat with equivalent energy intake from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or vegetable fat was associated with 24% (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.81) and 10% (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.93) lower risk of CVD, respectively, whereas the 5% energy intake substitution of other animal fat with dairy fat was associated with 6% increased CVD risk (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of animal fats, including dairy fat, with vegetable sources of fats and PUFAs may reduce risk of CVD. Whether the food matrix may modify the effect of dairy fat on health outcomes warrants further investigation. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27557656/Dairy_fat_and_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease_in_3_cohorts_of_US_adults_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.134460 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -