Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.
Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies.
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org.,
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. email@example.com.
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Pub Type(s)Journal Article