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The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation on Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments.
Brain Stimul. 2016 Nov - Dec; 9(6):842-849.BS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique and has previously been shown to enhance submaximal exercise by reducing rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The present study examined the effects of tDCS on high-intensity self-paced exercise in temperate conditions and fixed followed by maximal exercise in the heat; it was hypothesised that performance and RPE would be altered.

METHODS

Two separate studies were undertaken in which exercise was preceded by 20-minutes of sham tDCS (SHAM), or anodal tDCS (TDCS). In study 1, six males completed a 20-km cycling time trial, on two occasions. Power output (PO), RPE, O2 pulse, and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout. In study 2, eight males completed fixed intensity cycling exercise at 55% of a pre-determined maximal power output (PMax) for 25-minutes before undertaking a time to exhaustion test (TTE; 75% PMax) in hot conditions (33 °C), on two occasions. Test duration, heart rate, thermal and perceptual responses were measured. Study specific and combined statistical analyses were undertaken and effect sizes established.

RESULTS

In study 1, mean PO was not improved with the tDCS (197 ± 20 W) compared to SHAM (197 ± 12 W) and there were no differences in pacing profile HR, O2 pulse or RPE (p > .05). In study 2, TTE duration (SHAM 314 ± 334 s cf 237 ± 362 s tDCS), thermal, heart rate and perceptual responses were unchanged by tDCS compared to SHAM (p > .05). When combined, performance in the SHAM trial tended to better than the tDCS.

CONCLUSION

tDCS did not influence cycling performance (study 1) exercise tolerance (study 2) or perception (studies 1 and 2). tDCS does not appear to facilitate high intensity exercise performance or exercise performance in the heat.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Northumberland Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK. Electronic address: martin.barwood@northumbria.ac.uk.Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Spinnaker Building, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2ER, UK.Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Northumberland Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Spinnaker Building, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2ER, UK.Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Northumberland Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK.Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Spinnaker Building, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2ER, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27567471

Citation

Barwood, Martin J., et al. "The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation On Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments." Brain Stimulation, vol. 9, no. 6, 2016, pp. 842-849.
Barwood MJ, Butterworth J, Goodall S, et al. The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation on Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments. Brain Stimul. 2016;9(6):842-849.
Barwood, M. J., Butterworth, J., Goodall, S., House, J. R., Laws, R., Nowicky, A., & Corbett, J. (2016). The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation on Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments. Brain Stimulation, 9(6), 842-849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2016.07.006
Barwood MJ, et al. The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation On Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments. Brain Stimul. 2016;9(6):842-849. PubMed PMID: 27567471.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Effects of Direct Current Stimulation on Exercise Performance, Pacing and Perception in Temperate and Hot Environments. AU - Barwood,Martin J, AU - Butterworth,Jake, AU - Goodall,Stuart, AU - House,James R, AU - Laws,Ryan, AU - Nowicky,Alexander, AU - Corbett,Jo, Y1 - 2016/07/20/ PY - 2016/04/20/received PY - 2016/06/16/revised PY - 2016/07/17/accepted PY - 2016/8/28/pubmed PY - 2017/10/5/medline PY - 2016/8/28/entrez KW - Anodal stimulation KW - Environmental temperature KW - Fixed and self-paced exercise SP - 842 EP - 849 JF - Brain stimulation JO - Brain Stimul VL - 9 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique and has previously been shown to enhance submaximal exercise by reducing rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The present study examined the effects of tDCS on high-intensity self-paced exercise in temperate conditions and fixed followed by maximal exercise in the heat; it was hypothesised that performance and RPE would be altered. METHODS: Two separate studies were undertaken in which exercise was preceded by 20-minutes of sham tDCS (SHAM), or anodal tDCS (TDCS). In study 1, six males completed a 20-km cycling time trial, on two occasions. Power output (PO), RPE, O2 pulse, and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout. In study 2, eight males completed fixed intensity cycling exercise at 55% of a pre-determined maximal power output (PMax) for 25-minutes before undertaking a time to exhaustion test (TTE; 75% PMax) in hot conditions (33 °C), on two occasions. Test duration, heart rate, thermal and perceptual responses were measured. Study specific and combined statistical analyses were undertaken and effect sizes established. RESULTS: In study 1, mean PO was not improved with the tDCS (197 ± 20 W) compared to SHAM (197 ± 12 W) and there were no differences in pacing profile HR, O2 pulse or RPE (p > .05). In study 2, TTE duration (SHAM 314 ± 334 s cf 237 ± 362 s tDCS), thermal, heart rate and perceptual responses were unchanged by tDCS compared to SHAM (p > .05). When combined, performance in the SHAM trial tended to better than the tDCS. CONCLUSION: tDCS did not influence cycling performance (study 1) exercise tolerance (study 2) or perception (studies 1 and 2). tDCS does not appear to facilitate high intensity exercise performance or exercise performance in the heat. SN - 1876-4754 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27567471/The_Effects_of_Direct_Current_Stimulation_on_Exercise_Performance_Pacing_and_Perception_in_Temperate_and_Hot_Environments_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1935-861X(16)30198-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -