Rectal Infection With Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in Men in the United States.Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 15; 63(10):1325-1331.CI
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend at least annual rectal screening of men who have receptive anal intercourse for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Only limited national data are available on the prevalence of rectal GC and CT infection among US men.
In collaboration with a large US commercial laboratory, we estimated positivity of the first rectal GC and CT test ("index" test) in men aged 15-60 years tested between January 2013 and May 2015. We estimated the frequency and positivity of pharyngeal or urine specimens tested for GC and CT on the index date, and the frequency and positivity of repeat rectal testing or any follow-up testing at any anatomic site after the index date.
Of 52 063 tested men aged 15-60 years, approximately 6.1% were positive for GC only, 8.3% for CT only, and 2.7% for both GC and CT on their index date. On that date, 86.5% had either urine or pharyngeal specimens collected, and 56.1% had both specimens collected. Pharyngeal GC infection was highly associated with rectal GC infection. Follow-up testing after 12 months ranged from 42.4% among uninfected men to 56.7% among infected men on the index date. Positivity was at least 5.7% in rectal GC, rectal CT, or pharyngeal GC at their last test.
This analysis of a large number of male rectal specimens tested for GC and CT suggest that routine testing and timely repeat rectal GC and CT testing should be prioritized among men who report receptive rectal sex.