Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 30; 16(1):330.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis clinical strains, as well as the effects of related components. Essential oils selection was based both on ethnomedicinal use and on proved antibacterial and/or antifungal activity of some of these oils. Fluconazole and voriconazole were used as reference drugs.

METHODS

The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of essential oils (thyme red, fennel, clove, pine, sage, lemon balm, and lavender) and their major components were investigated by the broth microdilution method (BM) and the vapour contact assay (VC).

RESULTS

Using BM, pine oil showed the best activity against all strains tested, though C.albicans was more susceptible than C.glabrata and C.tropicalis (MIC50-MIC90 = 0.06 %, v/v). On the contrary, sage oil displayed a weak activity (MIC50-MIC90 = 1 %, v/v). Thyme red oil (MIC50-MIC90 ≤ 0.0038 %, v/v for C.albicans and C.tropicalis, and 0.0078- < 0.015 %, v/v for C.glabrata), followed by lemon balm, lavender and sage were the most effective by VC. Carvacrol and thymol showed the highest activity, whereas linalyl acetate showed the lowest activity both by two methods. α-pinene displayed a better activity by BM than VC.

CONCLUSION

Results show a good activity of essential oils, mainly thymus red and pine oils, and their components carvacrol, thymol and α-pinene against Candida spp., including fluconazole/voriconazole resistant strains. These data encourage adequately controlled and randomized clinical investigations. The use in vapour phase could have additional advantages without requiring direct contact, resulting in easy of environmental application such as in hospital, and/or in school.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Health Products Polo Annunziata, University of Messina, Viale S.S. Annunziata, 98168, Messina, Italy.Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy.Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy.Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy.Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, c.so Svizzera 164, 10149, Torino, Italy.Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, c.so Svizzera 164, 10149, Torino, Italy.Chemical, Clinical and Microbiological Analyses Department, CTO, Turin, Italy.Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy.Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, Microbiology Division, University of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126, Turin, Italy. vivian.tullio@unito.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27576581

Citation

Mandras, Narcisa, et al. "Liquid and Vapour-phase Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils Against Candida Albicans and Non-albicans Candida." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016, p. 330.
Mandras N, Nostro A, Roana J, et al. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):330.
Mandras, N., Nostro, A., Roana, J., Scalas, D., Banche, G., Ghisetti, V., Del Re, S., Fucale, G., Cuffini, A. M., & Tullio, V. (2016). Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1), 330. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1316-5
Mandras N, et al. Liquid and Vapour-phase Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils Against Candida Albicans and Non-albicans Candida. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 30;16(1):330. PubMed PMID: 27576581.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. AU - Mandras,Narcisa, AU - Nostro,Antonia, AU - Roana,Janira, AU - Scalas,Daniela, AU - Banche,Giuliana, AU - Ghisetti,Valeria, AU - Del Re,Simonetta, AU - Fucale,Giacomo, AU - Cuffini,Anna Maria, AU - Tullio,Vivian, Y1 - 2016/08/30/ PY - 2016/05/14/received PY - 2016/08/24/accepted PY - 2016/9/1/entrez PY - 2016/9/1/pubmed PY - 2017/2/12/medline KW - Antifungal activity KW - Broth microdilution method KW - Essential oils KW - Vapour contact assay KW - Yeasts SP - 330 EP - 330 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis clinical strains, as well as the effects of related components. Essential oils selection was based both on ethnomedicinal use and on proved antibacterial and/or antifungal activity of some of these oils. Fluconazole and voriconazole were used as reference drugs. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of essential oils (thyme red, fennel, clove, pine, sage, lemon balm, and lavender) and their major components were investigated by the broth microdilution method (BM) and the vapour contact assay (VC). RESULTS: Using BM, pine oil showed the best activity against all strains tested, though C.albicans was more susceptible than C.glabrata and C.tropicalis (MIC50-MIC90 = 0.06 %, v/v). On the contrary, sage oil displayed a weak activity (MIC50-MIC90 = 1 %, v/v). Thyme red oil (MIC50-MIC90 ≤ 0.0038 %, v/v for C.albicans and C.tropicalis, and 0.0078- < 0.015 %, v/v for C.glabrata), followed by lemon balm, lavender and sage were the most effective by VC. Carvacrol and thymol showed the highest activity, whereas linalyl acetate showed the lowest activity both by two methods. α-pinene displayed a better activity by BM than VC. CONCLUSION: Results show a good activity of essential oils, mainly thymus red and pine oils, and their components carvacrol, thymol and α-pinene against Candida spp., including fluconazole/voriconazole resistant strains. These data encourage adequately controlled and randomized clinical investigations. The use in vapour phase could have additional advantages without requiring direct contact, resulting in easy of environmental application such as in hospital, and/or in school. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27576581/Liquid_and_vapour_phase_antifungal_activities_of_essential_oils_against_Candida_albicans_and_non_albicans_Candida_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-016-1316-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -