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Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life.
Pediatrics. 2016 09; 138(3)Ped

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Rhinoviruses frequently cause respiratory infections in young children. We aimed to establish the burden of acute respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus during the first 2 years of life.

METHODS

In this prospective birth cohort study, we followed 923 children for acute respiratory infections from birth to 2 years of age. Data on respiratory infections were collected by daily symptom diaries, study clinic visits, and from electronic registries. Respiratory viruses were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and antigen assays during respiratory infections and at the age of 2, 13, and 24 months. The rates of rhinovirus infections and associated morbidities were determined.

RESULTS

We documented 8847 episodes of acute respiratory infections, with an annual rate of 5.9 per child (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-6.1). Rhinovirus was detected in 59% of acute respiratory infections analyzed for viruses. Rhinovirus was associated with 50% of acute otitis media episodes, 41% of wheezing illnesses, 49% of antibiotic treatments, and 48% of outpatient office visits for acute respiratory infections. The estimated mean annual rate of rhinovirus infections was 3.5 per child (95% CI, 3.3-3.6), 47 per 100 children (95% CI, 42-52) for rhinovirus-associated acute otitis media, and 61 per 100 children (95% CI, 55-68) for rhinovirus-associated antibiotic treatment. The prevalence of rhinovirus at 2, 13, or 24 months of age was 14 to 24%, and 9% of asymptomatic children were positive for rhinovirus.

CONCLUSIONS

Rhinovirus infections impose a major burden of acute respiratory illness and antibiotic use on young children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and.Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku Institute for Child and Youth Research, and ville.peltola@utu.fi.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27581858

Citation

Toivonen, Laura, et al. "Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life." Pediatrics, vol. 138, no. 3, 2016.
Toivonen L, Schuez-Havupalo L, Karppinen S, et al. Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3).
Toivonen, L., Schuez-Havupalo, L., Karppinen, S., Teros-Jaakkola, T., Rulli, M., Mertsola, J., Waris, M., & Peltola, V. (2016). Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life. Pediatrics, 138(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1309
Toivonen L, et al. Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3) PubMed PMID: 27581858.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rhinovirus Infections in the First 2 Years of Life. AU - Toivonen,Laura, AU - Schuez-Havupalo,Linnea, AU - Karppinen,Sinikka, AU - Teros-Jaakkola,Tamara, AU - Rulli,Maris, AU - Mertsola,Jussi, AU - Waris,Matti, AU - Peltola,Ville, PY - 2016/06/21/accepted PY - 2016/9/2/entrez PY - 2016/9/2/pubmed PY - 2017/6/24/medline JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 138 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rhinoviruses frequently cause respiratory infections in young children. We aimed to establish the burden of acute respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, we followed 923 children for acute respiratory infections from birth to 2 years of age. Data on respiratory infections were collected by daily symptom diaries, study clinic visits, and from electronic registries. Respiratory viruses were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and antigen assays during respiratory infections and at the age of 2, 13, and 24 months. The rates of rhinovirus infections and associated morbidities were determined. RESULTS: We documented 8847 episodes of acute respiratory infections, with an annual rate of 5.9 per child (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-6.1). Rhinovirus was detected in 59% of acute respiratory infections analyzed for viruses. Rhinovirus was associated with 50% of acute otitis media episodes, 41% of wheezing illnesses, 49% of antibiotic treatments, and 48% of outpatient office visits for acute respiratory infections. The estimated mean annual rate of rhinovirus infections was 3.5 per child (95% CI, 3.3-3.6), 47 per 100 children (95% CI, 42-52) for rhinovirus-associated acute otitis media, and 61 per 100 children (95% CI, 55-68) for rhinovirus-associated antibiotic treatment. The prevalence of rhinovirus at 2, 13, or 24 months of age was 14 to 24%, and 9% of asymptomatic children were positive for rhinovirus. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections impose a major burden of acute respiratory illness and antibiotic use on young children. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27581858/Rhinovirus_Infections_in_the_First_2_Years_of_Life_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27581858 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -