Changing Epidemiology: A New Focus of Kala-azar at High-Altitude Garhwal Region of North India.J Trop Pediatr. 2017 04 01; 63(2):104-108.JT
Adult cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), predominantly males, have been reported in the past decade from natives of high altitude areas of North Indian state of Uttarakhand. We report 14 pediatric cases of VL, who were diagnosed and treated successfully over the past 7 years. All these children were born and brought up in this area and had never visited any of the endemic areas. High prevalence of pallor, splenohepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia and poor association with HIV are cardinal features of VL in this region. Although newer drugs have become available, the protozoan continues to be sensitive to sodium stibogluconate. We conclude that the transmission cycle of VL has been established in this region and VL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any child presenting with fever and hepatosplenomegaly. However, molecular and epidemiological studies are needed to identify the ancestry, vector and animal reservoir if any in this region.