Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Apr; 56(3):909-923.EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

Plant sterols and stanols interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption, and it has been questioned whether absorption and plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are also affected. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of plant sterol and stanol consumption on plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations.

METHODS

Forty-one randomized controlled trials involving 3306 subjects were included. Weighted absolute and relative changes of non-standardized and total cholesterol (TC)-standardized values (expressed as summary estimates and 95 % CIs) were calculated for three fat-soluble vitamins (α- and γ-tocopherol, retinol and vitamin D) and six carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using predefined subject and treatment characteristics.

RESULTS

Average plant sterol or stanol intake was 2.5 g/d. Relative non-standardized and TC-standardized concentrations of β-carotene decreased by, respectively, -16.3 % (95 % CI -18.3; -14.3) and -10.1 % (-12.3; -8.0), α-carotene by -14.4 % (-17.5; 11.3) and -7.8 % (-11.3; -4.3), and lycopene by -12.3 % (-14.6; -10.1) and -6.3 % (-8.6; -4.0). Lutein concentrations decreased by -7.4 % (-10.1; -4.8), while TC-standardized concentrations were not changed. For zeaxanthin, these values were -12.9 % (-18.9; -6.8) and -7.7 % (-13.8; -1.7) and for β-cryptoxanthin -10.6 % (-14.3; -6.9) and -4.8 % (-8.7; -0.9). Non-standardized α-tocopherol concentrations decreased by -7.1 % (-8.0; -6.2) and γ-tocopherol by -6.9 % (-9.8; -3.9), while TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations were not changed. Non-standardized retinol and vitamin D concentrations were not affected. Results were not affected by baseline concentrations, dose, duration and type of plant sterols/stanols, except for significant effects of duration (≤4 vs. >4 weeks) on TC-standardized lutein concentrations (1.0 vs. -5.6 %) and type of plant sterol/stanol on TC-standardized β-carotene concentrations (-8.9 vs. -14.2 %).

CONCLUSIONS

Plant sterol and stanol intake lowers TC-standardized hydrocarbon carotenoid concentrations, differently affects TC-standardized oxygenated carotenoid concentrations, but does not affect TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations or absolute retinol and vitamin D concentrations. Observed concentrations remained within normal ranges.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. sabine.baumgartner@maastrichtuniversity.nl.Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27591863

Citation

Baumgartner, Sabine, et al. "Plasma Fat-soluble Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations After Plant Sterol and Plant Stanol Consumption: a Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, 2017, pp. 909-923.
Baumgartner S, Ras RT, Trautwein EA, et al. Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):909-923.
Baumgartner, S., Ras, R. T., Trautwein, E. A., Mensink, R. P., & Plat, J. (2017). Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(3), 909-923. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1289-7
Baumgartner S, et al. Plasma Fat-soluble Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations After Plant Sterol and Plant Stanol Consumption: a Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):909-923. PubMed PMID: 27591863.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AU - Baumgartner,Sabine, AU - Ras,Rouyanne T, AU - Trautwein,Elke A, AU - Mensink,Ronald P, AU - Plat,Jogchum, Y1 - 2016/09/03/ PY - 2016/04/29/received PY - 2016/07/29/accepted PY - 2016/9/7/pubmed PY - 2017/8/26/medline PY - 2016/9/5/entrez KW - Cholesterol KW - Fat-soluble vitamins KW - Hydrocarbon carotenoids KW - Oxygenated carotenoids KW - Plant stanols KW - Plant sterols SP - 909 EP - 923 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 56 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: Plant sterols and stanols interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption, and it has been questioned whether absorption and plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are also affected. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of plant sterol and stanol consumption on plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations. METHODS: Forty-one randomized controlled trials involving 3306 subjects were included. Weighted absolute and relative changes of non-standardized and total cholesterol (TC)-standardized values (expressed as summary estimates and 95 % CIs) were calculated for three fat-soluble vitamins (α- and γ-tocopherol, retinol and vitamin D) and six carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using predefined subject and treatment characteristics. RESULTS: Average plant sterol or stanol intake was 2.5 g/d. Relative non-standardized and TC-standardized concentrations of β-carotene decreased by, respectively, -16.3 % (95 % CI -18.3; -14.3) and -10.1 % (-12.3; -8.0), α-carotene by -14.4 % (-17.5; 11.3) and -7.8 % (-11.3; -4.3), and lycopene by -12.3 % (-14.6; -10.1) and -6.3 % (-8.6; -4.0). Lutein concentrations decreased by -7.4 % (-10.1; -4.8), while TC-standardized concentrations were not changed. For zeaxanthin, these values were -12.9 % (-18.9; -6.8) and -7.7 % (-13.8; -1.7) and for β-cryptoxanthin -10.6 % (-14.3; -6.9) and -4.8 % (-8.7; -0.9). Non-standardized α-tocopherol concentrations decreased by -7.1 % (-8.0; -6.2) and γ-tocopherol by -6.9 % (-9.8; -3.9), while TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations were not changed. Non-standardized retinol and vitamin D concentrations were not affected. Results were not affected by baseline concentrations, dose, duration and type of plant sterols/stanols, except for significant effects of duration (≤4 vs. >4 weeks) on TC-standardized lutein concentrations (1.0 vs. -5.6 %) and type of plant sterol/stanol on TC-standardized β-carotene concentrations (-8.9 vs. -14.2 %). CONCLUSIONS: Plant sterol and stanol intake lowers TC-standardized hydrocarbon carotenoid concentrations, differently affects TC-standardized oxygenated carotenoid concentrations, but does not affect TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations or absolute retinol and vitamin D concentrations. Observed concentrations remained within normal ranges. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27591863/Plasma_fat_soluble_vitamin_and_carotenoid_concentrations_after_plant_sterol_and_plant_stanol_consumption:_a_meta_analysis_of_randomized_controlled_trials_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1289-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -