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Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 09 03; 13(9)IJ

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurosciences Movement Disorders Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. sirisha.nandipati@kp.org.Department of Neurosciences Movement Disorders Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. ilitvan@ucsd.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27598189

Citation

Nandipati, Sirisha, and Irene Litvan. "Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 13, no. 9, 2016.
Nandipati S, Litvan I. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(9).
Nandipati, S., & Litvan, I. (2016). Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090881
Nandipati S, Litvan I. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 09 3;13(9) PubMed PMID: 27598189.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease. AU - Nandipati,Sirisha, AU - Litvan,Irene, Y1 - 2016/09/03/ PY - 2016/05/06/received PY - 2016/08/29/revised PY - 2016/08/30/accepted PY - 2016/9/7/entrez PY - 2016/9/7/pubmed PY - 2017/8/8/medline KW - environment and Parkinson’s disease KW - pesticides and Parkinson’s disease KW - toxins and Parkinson’s disease JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 13 IS - 9 N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27598189/Environmental_Exposures_and_Parkinson's_Disease_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph13090881 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -