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Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 09; 65(35):934-8.MM

Abstract

Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s. However, attenuated polioviruses in OPV can undergo genetic changes during replication, and in communities with low vaccination coverage, can result in vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) that can cause paralytic polio indistinguishable from the disease caused by WPVs (2). Among the 721 polio cases caused by circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs*) detected during January 2006-May 2016, type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) accounted for >94% (2). Eliminating the risk for polio caused by VDPVs will require stopping all OPV use. The first stage of OPV withdrawal involved a global, synchronized replacement of tOPV with bivalent OPV (bOPV) containing only types 1 and 3 attenuated polioviruses, planned for April 18-May 1, 2016, thereby withdrawing OPV type 2 from all immunization activities (3). Complementing the switch from tOPV to bOPV, introduction of at least 1 dose of injectable, trivalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into childhood immunization schedules reduces risks from and facilitates responses to cVDPV2 outbreaks. All 155 countries and territories that were still using OPV in immunization schedules in 2015 have reported that they had ceased use of tOPV by mid-May 2016.(†) As of August 31, 2016, 173 (89%) of 194 World Health Organization (WHO) countries included IPV in their immunization schedules.(§) The cessation of tOPV use is a major milestone toward the global goal of eradicating polio; however, careful surveillance for polioviruses and prompt, aggressive responses to polio outbreaks are still needed to realize a polio-free world.

Authors

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Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27606675

Citation

Hampton, Lee M., et al. "Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016." MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 65, no. 35, 2016, pp. 934-8.
Hampton LM, Farrell M, Ramirez-Gonzalez A, et al. Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(35):934-8.
Hampton, L. M., Farrell, M., Ramirez-Gonzalez, A., Menning, L., Shendale, S., Lewis, I., Rubin, J., Garon, J., Harris, J., Hyde, T., Wassilak, S., Patel, M., Nandy, R., & Chang-Blanc, D. (2016). Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(35), 934-8. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6535a3
Hampton LM, et al. Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 9;65(35):934-8. PubMed PMID: 27606675.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cessation of Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine - Worldwide, 2016. AU - Hampton,Lee M, AU - Farrell,Margaret, AU - Ramirez-Gonzalez,Alejandro, AU - Menning,Lisa, AU - Shendale,Stephanie, AU - Lewis,Ian, AU - Rubin,Jennifer, AU - Garon,Julie, AU - Harris,Jennifer, AU - Hyde,Terri, AU - Wassilak,Steven, AU - Patel,Manish, AU - Nandy,Robin, AU - Chang-Blanc,Diana, AU - ,, Y1 - 2016/09/09/ PY - 2016/9/9/entrez PY - 2016/9/9/pubmed PY - 2017/1/11/medline SP - 934 EP - 8 JF - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report JO - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep VL - 65 IS - 35 N2 - Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s. However, attenuated polioviruses in OPV can undergo genetic changes during replication, and in communities with low vaccination coverage, can result in vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) that can cause paralytic polio indistinguishable from the disease caused by WPVs (2). Among the 721 polio cases caused by circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs*) detected during January 2006-May 2016, type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) accounted for >94% (2). Eliminating the risk for polio caused by VDPVs will require stopping all OPV use. The first stage of OPV withdrawal involved a global, synchronized replacement of tOPV with bivalent OPV (bOPV) containing only types 1 and 3 attenuated polioviruses, planned for April 18-May 1, 2016, thereby withdrawing OPV type 2 from all immunization activities (3). Complementing the switch from tOPV to bOPV, introduction of at least 1 dose of injectable, trivalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into childhood immunization schedules reduces risks from and facilitates responses to cVDPV2 outbreaks. All 155 countries and territories that were still using OPV in immunization schedules in 2015 have reported that they had ceased use of tOPV by mid-May 2016.(†) As of August 31, 2016, 173 (89%) of 194 World Health Organization (WHO) countries included IPV in their immunization schedules.(§) The cessation of tOPV use is a major milestone toward the global goal of eradicating polio; however, careful surveillance for polioviruses and prompt, aggressive responses to polio outbreaks are still needed to realize a polio-free world. SN - 1545-861X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27606675/Cessation_of_Trivalent_Oral_Poliovirus_Vaccine_and_Introduction_of_Inactivated_Poliovirus_Vaccine___Worldwide_2016_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -