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Childhood autism spectrum disorders and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter air pollution: A review and meta-analysis.
Environ Res. 2016 Nov; 151:763-776.ER

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

Genetic and environmental factors have been recognized to play an important role in autism. The possibility that exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an emerging area of research. Herein, we present a systematic review, and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that have investigated these associations.

METHODS

We undertook a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies that investigated outdoor air pollution and autism in children. Overall, seven cohorts and five case-control studies met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. We summarized the associations between exposure to air pollution and ASD based on the following critical exposure windows: (i) first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, (ii) entire pregnancy, and (iii) postnatal period. Random effects meta-analysis modeling was undertaken to derive pooled risk estimates for these exposures across the studies.

RESULTS

The meta-estimates for the change in ASD associated with a 10μg/m3 increase in exposure in PM2.5 and 10 ppb increase in NO2 during pregnancy were 1.34 (95% CI:0.83, 2.17) and 1.05 (95% CI:0.99, 1.11), respectively. Stronger associations were observed for exposures received after birth, but these estimates were unstable as they were based on only two studies. O3 exposure was weakly associated with ASD during the third trimester of pregnancy and during the entire pregnancy, however, these estimates were also based on only two studies.

CONCLUSION

Our meta-analysis support the hypothesis that exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of autism. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously due to relatively small number of studies, and several studies were unable to control for other key risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Epistream Consulting Inc, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Epistream Consulting Inc, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: Paul.Villeneuve@carleton.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27609410

Citation

Flores-Pajot, Marie-Claire, et al. "Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide, and Particulate Matter Air Pollution: a Review and Meta-analysis." Environmental Research, vol. 151, 2016, pp. 763-776.
Flores-Pajot MC, Ofner M, Do MT, et al. Childhood autism spectrum disorders and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter air pollution: A review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016;151:763-776.
Flores-Pajot, M. C., Ofner, M., Do, M. T., Lavigne, E., & Villeneuve, P. J. (2016). Childhood autism spectrum disorders and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter air pollution: A review and meta-analysis. Environmental Research, 151, 763-776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.030
Flores-Pajot MC, et al. Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide, and Particulate Matter Air Pollution: a Review and Meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016;151:763-776. PubMed PMID: 27609410.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Childhood autism spectrum disorders and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter air pollution: A review and meta-analysis. AU - Flores-Pajot,Marie-Claire, AU - Ofner,Marianna, AU - Do,Minh T, AU - Lavigne,Eric, AU - Villeneuve,Paul J, Y1 - 2016/09/05/ PY - 2016/01/26/received PY - 2016/07/18/revised PY - 2016/07/19/accepted PY - 2016/10/21/pubmed PY - 2017/5/30/medline PY - 2016/9/10/entrez KW - Air pollution KW - Autism spectrum disorder KW - Fine particulate matter KW - Meta-analysis KW - Review SP - 763 EP - 776 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ. Res. VL - 151 N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors have been recognized to play an important role in autism. The possibility that exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an emerging area of research. Herein, we present a systematic review, and meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that have investigated these associations. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies that investigated outdoor air pollution and autism in children. Overall, seven cohorts and five case-control studies met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. We summarized the associations between exposure to air pollution and ASD based on the following critical exposure windows: (i) first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, (ii) entire pregnancy, and (iii) postnatal period. Random effects meta-analysis modeling was undertaken to derive pooled risk estimates for these exposures across the studies. RESULTS: The meta-estimates for the change in ASD associated with a 10μg/m3 increase in exposure in PM2.5 and 10 ppb increase in NO2 during pregnancy were 1.34 (95% CI:0.83, 2.17) and 1.05 (95% CI:0.99, 1.11), respectively. Stronger associations were observed for exposures received after birth, but these estimates were unstable as they were based on only two studies. O3 exposure was weakly associated with ASD during the third trimester of pregnancy and during the entire pregnancy, however, these estimates were also based on only two studies. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis support the hypothesis that exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of autism. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously due to relatively small number of studies, and several studies were unable to control for other key risk factors. SN - 1096-0953 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27609410/Childhood_autism_spectrum_disorders_and_exposure_to_nitrogen_dioxide_and_particulate_matter_air_pollution:_A_review_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-9351(16)30317-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -