Hepatitis E: Discovery, global impact, control and cure.World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Aug 21; 22(31):7030-45.WJ
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults. The disease is particularly severe during pregnancy and in people with underlying liver cirrhosis. Autochthonous hepatitis E is increasingly recognized in developed countries. The virus infects domestic pigs, wild boar and Sika deer in these countries. HEV infections in humans occur by eating the undercooked game flesh, raw liver from supermarkets and Figatelli sausages. Blood transfusion-associated HEV infections occur in many countries and screening of donors for HEV RNA is under consideration. Hepatitis E causes a number of extrahepatic diseases, including a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes. HEV genotype 3 causes prolonged viremia, chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in organ transplant patients. The virus is amenable to ribavirin monotherapy and most patients clear the virus in a few weeks. Hepatitis E vaccine -239, marketed in China, has shown high efficacy with sustained protection for over four years.