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Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 10; 104(4):1167-1174.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

To our knowledge, few studies have described the usual nutrient intakes of US children aged <2 y or assessed the nutrient adequacy of their diets relative to the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

OBJECTIVE

We estimated the usual nutrient intake of US children aged 6-23 mo examined in NHANES 2009-2012 and compared them to age-specific DRIs as applicable.

DESIGN

Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-h recalls for infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 381) and toddlers aged 12-23 mo (n = 516) with the use of the USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from food and beverages were obtained with the use of the National Cancer Institute method. The proportions of children with intakes below and above the DRI were also estimated.

RESULTS

The estimated usual intakes of infants were adequate for most nutrients; however, 10% had an iron intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and only 21% had a vitamin D intake that met or exceeded the recommended Adequate Intake (AI). More nutrient inadequacies were noted among toddlers; 1 in 4 had a lower-than-recommended fat intake (percentage of energy), and most had intakes that were below the EAR for vitamins E (82%) and D (74%). Few toddlers (<1%) met or exceeded the AI for fiber and potassium. In contrast, 1 in 2 had sodium intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL); ≥16% and 41% of the children had excessive intakes (greater than the ULs) of vitamin A and zinc, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The estimated usual intakes of infants were adequate for most nutrients. Most toddlers were at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E and had diets low in fiber and potassium. The sources contributing to excessive intakes of vitamin A and zinc among infants and toddlers may need further evaluation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and n.ahluwalia@cdc.gov.Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and.Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, Hyattsville, MD.Food Surveys Research Group, USDA, Beltsville, MD; and.Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and.Food Surveys Research Group, USDA, Beltsville, MD; and.National Cancer Institute, NIH, Rockville, MD.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27629049

Citation

Ahluwalia, Namanjeet, et al. "Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Infants and Toddlers Generally Meet or Exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: Findings From NHANES 2009-2012." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 4, 2016, pp. 1167-1174.
Ahluwalia N, Herrick KA, Rossen LM, et al. Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(4):1167-1174.
Ahluwalia, N., Herrick, K. A., Rossen, L. M., Rhodes, D., Kit, B., Moshfegh, A., & Dodd, K. W. (2016). Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(4), 1167-1174.
Ahluwalia N, et al. Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Infants and Toddlers Generally Meet or Exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: Findings From NHANES 2009-2012. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(4):1167-1174. PubMed PMID: 27629049.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012. AU - Ahluwalia,Namanjeet, AU - Herrick,Kirsten A, AU - Rossen,Lauren M, AU - Rhodes,Donna, AU - Kit,Brian, AU - Moshfegh,Alanna, AU - Dodd,Kevin W, Y1 - 2016/09/14/ PY - 2016/05/04/received PY - 2016/08/10/accepted PY - 2016/9/16/pubmed PY - 2017/6/10/medline PY - 2016/9/16/entrez KW - infants and toddlers KW - nationally representative sample KW - nutrient adequacy KW - recommended intakes KW - usual nutrient intake SP - 1167 EP - 1174 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 104 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, few studies have described the usual nutrient intakes of US children aged <2 y or assessed the nutrient adequacy of their diets relative to the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). OBJECTIVE: We estimated the usual nutrient intake of US children aged 6-23 mo examined in NHANES 2009-2012 and compared them to age-specific DRIs as applicable. DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-h recalls for infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 381) and toddlers aged 12-23 mo (n = 516) with the use of the USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from food and beverages were obtained with the use of the National Cancer Institute method. The proportions of children with intakes below and above the DRI were also estimated. RESULTS: The estimated usual intakes of infants were adequate for most nutrients; however, 10% had an iron intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and only 21% had a vitamin D intake that met or exceeded the recommended Adequate Intake (AI). More nutrient inadequacies were noted among toddlers; 1 in 4 had a lower-than-recommended fat intake (percentage of energy), and most had intakes that were below the EAR for vitamins E (82%) and D (74%). Few toddlers (<1%) met or exceeded the AI for fiber and potassium. In contrast, 1 in 2 had sodium intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL); ≥16% and 41% of the children had excessive intakes (greater than the ULs) of vitamin A and zinc, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated usual intakes of infants were adequate for most nutrients. Most toddlers were at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E and had diets low in fiber and potassium. The sources contributing to excessive intakes of vitamin A and zinc among infants and toddlers may need further evaluation. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27629049/Usual_nutrient_intakes_of_US_infants_and_toddlers_generally_meet_or_exceed_Dietary_Reference_Intakes:_findings_from_NHANES_2009_2012_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.137752 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -