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Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention.
J Neurosci 2016; 36(37):9547-57JN

Abstract

Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance. Validating the networks as generalizable biomarkers of attention, models based on network strength at rest predicted attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an independent group of individuals (Rosenberg et al., 2016). To investigate whether these networks play a causal role in attention, here we examined their strength in healthy adults given methylphenidate (Ritalin), a common ADHD treatment, compared with unmedicated controls. As predicted, individuals given methylphenidate showed patterns of connectivity associated with better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. There was significant overlap between the high-attention network and a network with greater strength in the methylphenidate group, and between the low-attention network and a network with greater strength in the control group. Network strength also predicted behavior on a stop-signal task, such that participants with higher go response rates showed higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating functional brain networks related to sustained attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may help improve attention.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Recent work identified a promising neuromarker of sustained attention based on whole-brain functional connectivity networks. To investigate the causal role of these networks in attention, we examined their response to a dose of methylphenidate, a common and effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in healthy adults. As predicted, individuals on methylphenidate showed connectivity signatures of better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating strength in functional brain networks related to attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may improve attention.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, monica.rosenberg@yale.edu.Departments of Psychiatry.Department of Psychology, Yale College, and.Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program.Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Neurosurgery, Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Departments of Psychiatry, Neuroscience, and.Department of Psychology, Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Neuroscience, and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27629707

Citation

Rosenberg, Monica D., et al. "Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention." The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, vol. 36, no. 37, 2016, pp. 9547-57.
Rosenberg MD, Zhang S, Hsu WT, et al. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention. J Neurosci. 2016;36(37):9547-57.
Rosenberg, M. D., Zhang, S., Hsu, W. T., Scheinost, D., Finn, E. S., Shen, X., ... Chun, M. M. (2016). Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 36(37), pp. 9547-57. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1746-16.2016.
Rosenberg MD, et al. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention. J Neurosci. 2016 09 14;36(37):9547-57. PubMed PMID: 27629707.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention. AU - Rosenberg,Monica D, AU - Zhang,Sheng, AU - Hsu,Wei-Ting, AU - Scheinost,Dustin, AU - Finn,Emily S, AU - Shen,Xilin, AU - Constable,R Todd, AU - Li,Chiang-Shan R, AU - Chun,Marvin M, PY - 2016/05/27/received PY - 2016/07/20/accepted PY - 2016/9/16/entrez PY - 2016/9/16/pubmed PY - 2017/8/23/medline KW - fMRI KW - functional connectivity KW - methylphenidate KW - neuromarker KW - predictive marker KW - sustained attention SP - 9547 EP - 57 JF - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience JO - J. Neurosci. VL - 36 IS - 37 N2 - UNLABELLED: Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance. Validating the networks as generalizable biomarkers of attention, models based on network strength at rest predicted attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an independent group of individuals (Rosenberg et al., 2016). To investigate whether these networks play a causal role in attention, here we examined their strength in healthy adults given methylphenidate (Ritalin), a common ADHD treatment, compared with unmedicated controls. As predicted, individuals given methylphenidate showed patterns of connectivity associated with better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. There was significant overlap between the high-attention network and a network with greater strength in the methylphenidate group, and between the low-attention network and a network with greater strength in the control group. Network strength also predicted behavior on a stop-signal task, such that participants with higher go response rates showed higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating functional brain networks related to sustained attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may help improve attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Recent work identified a promising neuromarker of sustained attention based on whole-brain functional connectivity networks. To investigate the causal role of these networks in attention, we examined their response to a dose of methylphenidate, a common and effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in healthy adults. As predicted, individuals on methylphenidate showed connectivity signatures of better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating strength in functional brain networks related to attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may improve attention. SN - 1529-2401 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27629707/Methylphenidate_Modulates_Functional_Network_Connectivity_to_Enhance_Attention_ L2 - http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27629707 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -