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Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012.
Am J Public Health. 2016 11; 106(11):2049-2056.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To compare blood lead levels (BLLs) among US children aged 1 to 5 years according to receipt of federal housing assistance.

METHODS

In our analyses, we used 2005 to 2012 data for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents that were linked to 1999 to 2014 administrative records from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). After we restricted the analysis to children with family income-to-poverty ratios below 200%, we compared geometric mean BLLs and the prevalence of BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher among children who were living in assisted housing at the time of their NHANES blood draw (n = 151) with data for children who did not receive housing assistance (n = 1099).

RESULTS

After adjustment, children living in assisted housing had a significantly lower geometric mean BLL (1.44 µg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.57) than comparable children who did not receive housing assistance (1.79 µg/dL; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.01; P < .01). The prevalence ratio for BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.81; P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS

Children aged 1 to 5 years during 2005 to 2012 who were living in HUD-assisted housing had lower BLLs than expected given their demographic, socioeconomic, and family characteristics.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, and Patricia C. Lloyd are with the Office of Analysis & Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, MD. Barbara A. Haley is with the Office of Policy Development and Research, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Yutaka Aoki is with the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, and Patricia C. Lloyd are with the Office of Analysis & Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, MD. Barbara A. Haley is with the Office of Policy Development and Research, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Yutaka Aoki is with the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, and Patricia C. Lloyd are with the Office of Analysis & Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, MD. Barbara A. Haley is with the Office of Policy Development and Research, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Yutaka Aoki is with the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, and Patricia C. Lloyd are with the Office of Analysis & Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, MD. Barbara A. Haley is with the Office of Policy Development and Research, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Yutaka Aoki is with the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.Katherine A. Ahrens, Lauren M. Rossen, and Patricia C. Lloyd are with the Office of Analysis & Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville, MD. Barbara A. Haley is with the Office of Policy Development and Research, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Yutaka Aoki is with the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Hyattsville.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27631737

Citation

Ahrens, Katherine A., et al. "Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 106, no. 11, 2016, pp. 2049-2056.
Ahrens KA, Haley BA, Rossen LM, et al. Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(11):2049-2056.
Ahrens, K. A., Haley, B. A., Rossen, L. M., Lloyd, P. C., & Aoki, Y. (2016). Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012. American Journal of Public Health, 106(11), 2049-2056.
Ahrens KA, et al. Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(11):2049-2056. PubMed PMID: 27631737.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Housing Assistance and Blood Lead Levels: Children in the United States, 2005-2012. AU - Ahrens,Katherine A, AU - Haley,Barbara A, AU - Rossen,Lauren M, AU - Lloyd,Patricia C, AU - Aoki,Yutaka, Y1 - 2016/09/15/ PY - 2016/9/16/pubmed PY - 2017/6/9/medline PY - 2016/9/16/entrez SP - 2049 EP - 2056 JF - American journal of public health JO - Am J Public Health VL - 106 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To compare blood lead levels (BLLs) among US children aged 1 to 5 years according to receipt of federal housing assistance. METHODS: In our analyses, we used 2005 to 2012 data for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents that were linked to 1999 to 2014 administrative records from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). After we restricted the analysis to children with family income-to-poverty ratios below 200%, we compared geometric mean BLLs and the prevalence of BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher among children who were living in assisted housing at the time of their NHANES blood draw (n = 151) with data for children who did not receive housing assistance (n = 1099). RESULTS: After adjustment, children living in assisted housing had a significantly lower geometric mean BLL (1.44 µg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.57) than comparable children who did not receive housing assistance (1.79 µg/dL; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.01; P < .01). The prevalence ratio for BLLs of 3 micrograms per deciliter or higher was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.81; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Children aged 1 to 5 years during 2005 to 2012 who were living in HUD-assisted housing had lower BLLs than expected given their demographic, socioeconomic, and family characteristics. SN - 1541-0048 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27631737/Housing_Assistance_and_Blood_Lead_Levels:_Children_in_the_United_States_2005_2012_ L2 - https://www.ajph.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303432?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -