Coffee consumption and myocardial infarction in women.Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Sep; 130(3):481-5.AJ
The relation between coffee consumption and the risk of acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1983 and 1987. The study consisted of 262 women with acute myocardial infarction and 519 controls admitted to the hospital for acute, nondigestive tract disorders. Information was obtained on the average number of cups of coffee or decaffeinated coffee consumed per day before the onset of the disease which led to hospital admission and on the total duration in years of the habit. There was a positive association between heavy coffee drinking and risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk (RR) = 2.7 for consumption of four cups or more per day). After allowance for smoking and other relevant covariates, the relative risk was not elevated for consumption of up to three cups per day, but still above unity for consumption of four or more cups per day (RR = 1.7), and the multivariate trend in risk was still significant (X1(2) = 5.14, p = 0.02). The risk estimates were grossly elevated among hyperlipidemic women (multivariate RR = 7.6 for moderate and 17.9 for heavy coffee drinkers). As a result of small absolute numbers, these estimates were largely unstable and the interaction between coffee and hyperlipidemia was not statistically significant. Such estimates, nonetheless, are of potential interest in terms of etiologic correlates and implications for prevention.