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Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.
Drug Test Anal. 2017 Jun; 9(6):905-915.DT

Abstract

Oral fluid (OF) is an important matrix for monitoring drugs. Smoking cannabis is common, but vaporization and edible consumption also are popular. OF pharmacokinetics are available for controlled smoked cannabis, but few data exist for vaporized and oral routes. Frequent and occasional cannabis smokers were recruited as participants for four dosing sessions including one active (6.9% Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or placebo cannabis-containing brownie, followed by one active or placebo cigarette, or one active or placebo vaporized cannabis dose. Only one active dose was administered per session. OF was collected before and up to 54 (occasional) or 72 (frequent) h after dosing from cannabis smokers. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OF cannabinoid Cmax occurred during or immediately after cannabis consumption due to oral mucosa contamination. Significantly greater THC Cmax and significantly later THCV, CBD, and CBG tlast were observed after smoked and vaporized cannabis compared to oral cannabis in frequent smokers only. No significant differences in THC, 11-OH-THC, THCV, CBD, or CBG tmax between routes were observed for either group. For occasional smokers, more 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH-positive specimens were observed after oral dosing than after inhaled routes, increasing % positive cannabinoid results and widening metabolite detection windows after oral cannabis consumption. Utilizing 0.3 µg/L THCV and CBG cut-offs resulted in detection windows indicative of recent cannabis intake. OF pharmacokinetics after high potency CBD cannabis are not yet available precluding its use currently as a marker of recent use. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27647820

Citation

Swortwood, Madeleine J., et al. "Cannabinoid Disposition in Oral Fluid After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration." Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 9, no. 6, 2017, pp. 905-915.
Swortwood MJ, Newmeyer MN, Andersson M, et al. Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. Drug Test Anal. 2017;9(6):905-915.
Swortwood, M. J., Newmeyer, M. N., Andersson, M., Abulseoud, O. A., Scheidweiler, K. B., & Huestis, M. A. (2017). Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. Drug Testing and Analysis, 9(6), 905-915. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2092
Swortwood MJ, et al. Cannabinoid Disposition in Oral Fluid After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration. Drug Test Anal. 2017;9(6):905-915. PubMed PMID: 27647820.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. AU - Swortwood,Madeleine J, AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Andersson,Maria, AU - Abulseoud,Osama A, AU - Scheidweiler,Karl B, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2016/10/13/ PY - 2016/07/04/received PY - 2016/09/15/revised PY - 2016/09/15/accepted PY - 2016/9/21/pubmed PY - 2018/3/16/medline PY - 2016/9/21/entrez KW - cannabinoids KW - edibles KW - oral fluid KW - smoking KW - vaporizer SP - 905 EP - 915 JF - Drug testing and analysis JO - Drug Test Anal VL - 9 IS - 6 N2 - Oral fluid (OF) is an important matrix for monitoring drugs. Smoking cannabis is common, but vaporization and edible consumption also are popular. OF pharmacokinetics are available for controlled smoked cannabis, but few data exist for vaporized and oral routes. Frequent and occasional cannabis smokers were recruited as participants for four dosing sessions including one active (6.9% Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or placebo cannabis-containing brownie, followed by one active or placebo cigarette, or one active or placebo vaporized cannabis dose. Only one active dose was administered per session. OF was collected before and up to 54 (occasional) or 72 (frequent) h after dosing from cannabis smokers. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OF cannabinoid Cmax occurred during or immediately after cannabis consumption due to oral mucosa contamination. Significantly greater THC Cmax and significantly later THCV, CBD, and CBG tlast were observed after smoked and vaporized cannabis compared to oral cannabis in frequent smokers only. No significant differences in THC, 11-OH-THC, THCV, CBD, or CBG tmax between routes were observed for either group. For occasional smokers, more 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH-positive specimens were observed after oral dosing than after inhaled routes, increasing % positive cannabinoid results and widening metabolite detection windows after oral cannabis consumption. Utilizing 0.3 µg/L THCV and CBG cut-offs resulted in detection windows indicative of recent cannabis intake. OF pharmacokinetics after high potency CBD cannabis are not yet available precluding its use currently as a marker of recent use. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. SN - 1942-7611 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27647820/Cannabinoid_disposition_in_oral_fluid_after_controlled_smoked_vaporized_and_oral_cannabis_administration_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2092 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -