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The fate of selected pharmaceuticals in solar stills: Transfer, thermal degradation or photolysis?
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 01; 574:583-593.ST

Abstract

The increase in demand for, and disposal of, pharmaceuticals, positively correlated with the growing human population, has led to the emergence of contaminants with high environmental and health impacts. Several developing countries that endure problems related to water sufficiency and/or quality resort to the use solar stills as an affordable water treatment method. This research is aimed at investigating the fate of five chemically distinct pharmaceuticals that might pervade solar stills; ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ), ampicillin (AMP) and naproxen (NPX). The experiments were conducted under three conditions. The first condition studied the combined effect of temperature and light in simulated field-test-scale solar stills. The effect of temperature as a sole variable was investigated in the second while the third condition studied the effect of light only via concentrated solar power (CSP). Results show that distillates from solar stills did not contain the parent compounds for four out of the five pharmaceuticals. IBU was the only pharmaceutical that showed a transfer via vapor into the distillate with the highest recorded transfer percentage of 2.1% at 50°C when subjected to temperature alone and 0.6% under the combined effect of temperature and light. In the case of NPX and DCF, the parent compounds did not undergo transfer into the distillate phase; however their degradation by-products did. In addition, the results also showed that in the case of NPX, IBU and CBZ both high temperatures and sunlight combined were required to attain noticeable degradation. CSP accelerated the degradation of DCF, NPX and IBU with a three-minutes-degradation percentage of 44%, 13% and 2% respectively.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236 2020, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address: gayoub@aub.edu.lb.Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27648535

Citation

Baalbaki, Abbas, et al. "The Fate of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Solar Stills: Transfer, Thermal Degradation or Photolysis?" The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 574, 2017, pp. 583-593.
Baalbaki A, Ayoub GM, Al-Hindi M, et al. The fate of selected pharmaceuticals in solar stills: Transfer, thermal degradation or photolysis? Sci Total Environ. 2017;574:583-593.
Baalbaki, A., Ayoub, G. M., Al-Hindi, M., & Ghauch, A. (2017). The fate of selected pharmaceuticals in solar stills: Transfer, thermal degradation or photolysis? The Science of the Total Environment, 574, 583-593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.082
Baalbaki A, et al. The Fate of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Solar Stills: Transfer, Thermal Degradation or Photolysis. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 1;574:583-593. PubMed PMID: 27648535.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The fate of selected pharmaceuticals in solar stills: Transfer, thermal degradation or photolysis? AU - Baalbaki,Abbas, AU - Ayoub,George M, AU - Al-Hindi,Mahmoud, AU - Ghauch,Antoine, Y1 - 2016/10/14/ PY - 2016/07/25/received PY - 2016/09/09/revised PY - 2016/09/10/accepted PY - 2016/9/21/pubmed PY - 2018/6/5/medline PY - 2016/9/21/entrez KW - Desalination KW - Pharmaceuticals KW - Photolysis KW - Solar degradation KW - Water contamination SP - 583 EP - 593 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 574 N2 - The increase in demand for, and disposal of, pharmaceuticals, positively correlated with the growing human population, has led to the emergence of contaminants with high environmental and health impacts. Several developing countries that endure problems related to water sufficiency and/or quality resort to the use solar stills as an affordable water treatment method. This research is aimed at investigating the fate of five chemically distinct pharmaceuticals that might pervade solar stills; ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ), ampicillin (AMP) and naproxen (NPX). The experiments were conducted under three conditions. The first condition studied the combined effect of temperature and light in simulated field-test-scale solar stills. The effect of temperature as a sole variable was investigated in the second while the third condition studied the effect of light only via concentrated solar power (CSP). Results show that distillates from solar stills did not contain the parent compounds for four out of the five pharmaceuticals. IBU was the only pharmaceutical that showed a transfer via vapor into the distillate with the highest recorded transfer percentage of 2.1% at 50°C when subjected to temperature alone and 0.6% under the combined effect of temperature and light. In the case of NPX and DCF, the parent compounds did not undergo transfer into the distillate phase; however their degradation by-products did. In addition, the results also showed that in the case of NPX, IBU and CBZ both high temperatures and sunlight combined were required to attain noticeable degradation. CSP accelerated the degradation of DCF, NPX and IBU with a three-minutes-degradation percentage of 44%, 13% and 2% respectively. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27648535/The_fate_of_selected_pharmaceuticals_in_solar_stills:_Transfer_thermal_degradation_or_photolysis L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(16)32001-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -