Three-dimensional ocular kinematics underlying binocular single vision.J Neurophysiol 2016; 116(6):2841-2856JN
We have analyzed the binocular coordination of the eyes during far-to-near refixation saccades based on the evaluation of distance ratios and angular directions of the projected target images relative to the eyes' rotation centers. By defining the geometric point of binocular single vision, called Helmholtz point, we found that disparities during fixations of targets at near distances were limited in the subject's three-dimensional visual field to the vertical and forward directions. These disparities collapsed to simple vertical disparities in the projective binocular image plane. Subjects were able to perfectly fuse the vertically disparate target images with respect to the projected Helmholtz point of single binocular vision, independent of the particular location relative to the horizontal plane of regard. Target image fusion was achieved by binocular torsion combined with corrective modulations of the differential half-vergence angles of the eyes in the horizontal plane. Our findings support the notion that oculomotor control combines vergence in the horizontal plane of regard with active torsion in the frontal plane to achieve fusion of the dichoptic binocular target images.