Relationship between bone mineral density and dietary intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, zinc and vegetables in postmenopausal Korean women: a cross-sectional study.J Int Med Res 2016; 44(5):1103-1114JI
Objective To examine the relationship between nutritional intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Dietary intake was recorded in postmenopausal Korean women using a semiquantitative questionnaire. The frequency of consumption of various food groups and nutrient intake were calculated. BMD T-scores were measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Associations between T-scores and dietary intake were analysed using partial correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 189 postmenopausal women were included in the study. β-Carotene intake was positively correlated with the lumbar spine T-score. Sodium and vitamin C intake were positively associated and folate intake negatively associated with the femoral neck T-score. Sodium, zinc and vitamin C intake were positively correlated and potassium intake was negatively correlated with the total hip T-score. Vegetable intake showed a positive association with the femoral neck and total hip T-scores. Conclusion In postmenopausal Korean women, β-carotene, vitamin C, zinc and sodium intakes were positively associated with bone mass. Furthermore, frequency of vegetable consumption was positively associated with femoral neck and total hip T-scores.