Phenolics, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) grown in Turkey.Food Chem. 2017 Feb 15; 217:483-489.FC
In this study, the changes in phenolics, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity, and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) in Turkey were investigated. A total of 19 phenolic standards were screened in the chicory varieties studied and the most abundant compounds in the samples, extracted with methanol, were phenolic acids, syringic (2.54mg/kg) and trans-ferulic acid (1.85mg/kg), whilst (+)-catechin was the major flavanol. The highest flavanol content using either methanol or ethanol was determined in the green chicory samples (0.62mg/kg). The red chicory variety had higher anthocyanin (12.80mg/kg), and contained more phenolics, extractable (8855.50mg GAE/100g) and hydrolysable (7005.51mg GAE/100g), than the other varieties. Also, the antioxidant capacities in this variety, as measured using the CUPRAC assay (570.54 and 425.14μmol Trolox/g dw, respectively), had a wider range of difference than was found in the other assays used. Total phenolics were more bioaccessible from the white chicory variety (61.48%). However, the bioaccessibility of antioxidants was higher in the green chicory variety.