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Contribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson's disease.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2017; 39(2):142-162JC

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Cognitive reserve (CR) was proposed to explain how individual differences in brain function help to cope with the effects of normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Education, professional solicitations, and engagement in leisure and physical activities across the lifetime are considered as major determinants of this reserve.

METHOD

Using multiple linear regression analyses, we tested separately in healthy elderly and Parkinson's disease (PD) populations to what extent cognitive performance in several domains was explained by (a) any of these four environmental lifespan variables; (b) demographic and clinical variables (age, gender, depression score, and, for the PD group, duration of disease and dopaminergic drugs). We also tested for an interaction, if any, between these lifespan variables and brain pathology indexed by global atrophy measured from high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging.

RESULTS

Age was negatively associated with cognitive performance in the PD group. In healthy elderly participants, we observed significant positive associations between cognitive performance and (a) education, (b) leisure activities, and (c) professional solicitation (decisional latitude). Furthermore, participants with greater brain atrophy benefited more from CR. In PD patients, education and professional solicitations contributed to cognitive performance but to a lesser extent than in controls. CR factors modulated the relationship between cognition and brain atrophy only in patients with a slight or moderate brain atrophy.

CONCLUSIONS

Education is the CR factor that contributed the most to late cognitive functioning in both groups, closely followed by leisure activity in normal aging and professional solicitations in PD. Our results also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of CR does not express similarly in normal aging and PD. From a broader perspective, these results seem to indicate that CR factors the most consistently practiced across lifespan (education and professional solicitation) are those that are the more strongly associated to late cognitive efficiency.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a GIGA-CRC In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège , Liège , Belgium. b Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage (UMR CNRS 7295), Sport Sciences Faculty , University of Poitiers , Poitiers , France.b Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage (UMR CNRS 7295), Sport Sciences Faculty , University of Poitiers , Poitiers , France.b Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition et l'Apprentissage (UMR CNRS 7295), Sport Sciences Faculty , University of Poitiers , Poitiers , France. c Laboratoire Sciences de la Cognition, Technologie, Ergonomie (SCoTE) , University of Toulouse, INU Champollion , Albi , France.a GIGA-CRC In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège , Liège , Belgium.a GIGA-CRC In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège , Liège , Belgium. d Department of Neurology , CHU of Liège , Liège , Belgium.a GIGA-CRC In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège , Liège , Belgium. e Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit , University of Liège , Liège , Belgium.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27686164

Citation

Rouillard, Maud, et al. "Contribution of Four Lifelong Factors of Cognitive Reserve On Late Cognition in Normal Aging and Parkinson's Disease." Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2017, pp. 142-162.
Rouillard M, Audiffren M, Albinet C, et al. Contribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson's disease. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2017;39(2):142-162.
Rouillard, M., Audiffren, M., Albinet, C., Ali Bahri, M., Garraux, G., & Collette, F. (2017). Contribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 39(2), pp. 142-162. doi:10.1080/13803395.2016.1207755.
Rouillard M, et al. Contribution of Four Lifelong Factors of Cognitive Reserve On Late Cognition in Normal Aging and Parkinson's Disease. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2017;39(2):142-162. PubMed PMID: 27686164.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Contribution of four lifelong factors of cognitive reserve on late cognition in normal aging and Parkinson's disease. AU - Rouillard,Maud, AU - Audiffren,Michel, AU - Albinet,Cédric, AU - Ali Bahri,Mohamed, AU - Garraux,Gaëtan, AU - Collette,Fabienne, Y1 - 2016/08/12/ PY - 2016/10/1/pubmed PY - 2018/3/27/medline PY - 2016/10/1/entrez KW - Aging KW - Brain atrophy KW - Cognition KW - Cognitive reserve KW - Education level KW - Leisure activities KW - Occupation KW - Parkinson’s disease KW - Physical activity SP - 142 EP - 162 JF - Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology JO - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol VL - 39 IS - 2 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve (CR) was proposed to explain how individual differences in brain function help to cope with the effects of normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Education, professional solicitations, and engagement in leisure and physical activities across the lifetime are considered as major determinants of this reserve. METHOD: Using multiple linear regression analyses, we tested separately in healthy elderly and Parkinson's disease (PD) populations to what extent cognitive performance in several domains was explained by (a) any of these four environmental lifespan variables; (b) demographic and clinical variables (age, gender, depression score, and, for the PD group, duration of disease and dopaminergic drugs). We also tested for an interaction, if any, between these lifespan variables and brain pathology indexed by global atrophy measured from high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Age was negatively associated with cognitive performance in the PD group. In healthy elderly participants, we observed significant positive associations between cognitive performance and (a) education, (b) leisure activities, and (c) professional solicitation (decisional latitude). Furthermore, participants with greater brain atrophy benefited more from CR. In PD patients, education and professional solicitations contributed to cognitive performance but to a lesser extent than in controls. CR factors modulated the relationship between cognition and brain atrophy only in patients with a slight or moderate brain atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Education is the CR factor that contributed the most to late cognitive functioning in both groups, closely followed by leisure activity in normal aging and professional solicitations in PD. Our results also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of CR does not express similarly in normal aging and PD. From a broader perspective, these results seem to indicate that CR factors the most consistently practiced across lifespan (education and professional solicitation) are those that are the more strongly associated to late cognitive efficiency. SN - 1744-411X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27686164/Contribution_of_four_lifelong_factors_of_cognitive_reserve_on_late_cognition_in_normal_aging_and_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13803395.2016.1207755 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -