Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 10 18; 113(42):E6325-E6334.PN

Abstract

Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 stevenst@hawaii.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27698119

Citation

Stanley, Steven M.. "Estimates of the Magnitudes of Major Marine Mass Extinctions in Earth History." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113, no. 42, 2016, pp. E6325-E6334.
Stanley SM. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(42):E6325-E6334.
Stanley, S. M. (2016). Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(42), E6325-E6334.
Stanley SM. Estimates of the Magnitudes of Major Marine Mass Extinctions in Earth History. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 10 18;113(42):E6325-E6334. PubMed PMID: 27698119.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history. A1 - Stanley,Steven M, Y1 - 2016/10/03/ PY - 2016/10/30/pubmed PY - 2018/1/31/medline PY - 2016/10/5/entrez KW - biodiversity KW - mass extinction KW - paleontology SP - E6325 EP - E6334 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A VL - 113 IS - 42 N2 - Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27698119/Estimates_of_the_magnitudes_of_major_marine_mass_extinctions_in_earth_history_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27698119 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -