Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: "A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study".Ann Card Anaesth. 2016 Oct-Dec; 19(4):638-682.AC
Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP) through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI) monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5-4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30-65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500-2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450-600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation <10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as CVP 6-8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90-105 mmHg, normal ABG values, oxygen saturation, hematocrit value >30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025), hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0.75 days, P = 0.012) was significantly less in the GDT group, compared to the control group. The extra volume added and the number of inotropic dose adjustments were significantly more in the GDT group. The two groups did not differ in duration of inotropic use, mortality, and other complications. The perioperative continuation of GDT affected the early decline in the lactate levels after 6 h in ICU, whereas the control group demonstrated a settling lactate only after 12 h. Similarly, the GDT group had significantly lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels as compared to the control. The study clearly depicts the advantage of GDT for a favorable postoperative outcome in high-risk cardiac surgical patients.