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Nature of the placebo and nocebo effect in relation to functional neurologic disorders.
Handb Clin Neurol. 2016; 139:597-606.HC

Abstract

Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions. Expectation, anxiety, and reward are all involved, as well as a variety of learning phenomena and genetic variants. The most productive models to better understand the neurobiology of the placebo effect are pain and Parkinson's disease. In these medical conditions, several neurotransmitters have been identified, such as endogenous opioids, cholecystokinin, dopamine, as well as lipidic mediators, for example, endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. Since the placebo effect is basically a psychosocial context effect, these data indicate that different social stimuli, such as words and therapeutic rituals, may change the chemistry of the patient's brain, and these effects are similar to those induced by drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy.Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy.Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy; Plateau Rosa Labs, Breuil-Cervinia, Italy and Zermatt, Switzerland. Electronic address: fabrizio.benedetti@unito.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27719874

Citation

Carlino, E, et al. "Nature of the Placebo and Nocebo Effect in Relation to Functional Neurologic Disorders." Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 139, 2016, pp. 597-606.
Carlino E, Piedimonte A, Benedetti F. Nature of the placebo and nocebo effect in relation to functional neurologic disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;139:597-606.
Carlino, E., Piedimonte, A., & Benedetti, F. (2016). Nature of the placebo and nocebo effect in relation to functional neurologic disorders. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 139, 597-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801772-2.00048-5
Carlino E, Piedimonte A, Benedetti F. Nature of the Placebo and Nocebo Effect in Relation to Functional Neurologic Disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;139:597-606. PubMed PMID: 27719874.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nature of the placebo and nocebo effect in relation to functional neurologic disorders. AU - Carlino,E, AU - Piedimonte,A, AU - Benedetti,F, PY - 2016/10/11/entrez PY - 2016/10/11/pubmed PY - 2017/3/24/medline KW - cholecystokinin KW - clinical trials KW - dopamine KW - endocannabinoids KW - endogenous opioids KW - expectation KW - learning KW - nocebo KW - placebo KW - prostaglandins KW - psychogenic SP - 597 EP - 606 JF - Handbook of clinical neurology JO - Handb Clin Neurol VL - 139 N2 - Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions. Expectation, anxiety, and reward are all involved, as well as a variety of learning phenomena and genetic variants. The most productive models to better understand the neurobiology of the placebo effect are pain and Parkinson's disease. In these medical conditions, several neurotransmitters have been identified, such as endogenous opioids, cholecystokinin, dopamine, as well as lipidic mediators, for example, endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. Since the placebo effect is basically a psychosocial context effect, these data indicate that different social stimuli, such as words and therapeutic rituals, may change the chemistry of the patient's brain, and these effects are similar to those induced by drugs. SN - 0072-9752 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27719874/Nature_of_the_placebo_and_nocebo_effect_in_relation_to_functional_neurologic_disorders_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B978-0-12-801772-2.00048-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -