In vitro and in vivo assessment of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) as anti-inflammatory agent.J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 04; 193:627-636.JE
Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim, Rosaceae) has been traditionally used in most European countries for the treatment of inflammatory diseases due to its antipyretic, analgesic, astringent, and anti-rheumatic properties. However, there is little scientific evidence on F. ulmaria anti-inflammatory effects regarding its impact on cyclooxygenases enzymatic activity and in vivo assessment of anti-inflammatory potential. This study aims to reveal the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts from the aerial parts (FUA) and roots (FUR) of F. ulmaria, both in in vitro and in vivo conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The characteristic phenolic compounds in F. ulmaria extracts were monitored via high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of F. ulmaria extracts was evaluated using cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme assays, and an assay for determining COX-2 gene expression. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of F. ulmaria extracts was determined in two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) with hot plate test and carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats. Inflammation was also evaluated by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.
FUA extract showed the presence of rutoside, spiraeoside, and isoquercitrin. Both F. ulmaria extracts at a concentration of 50μg/mL were able to inhibit COX-1 and -2 enzyme activities, whereby FUA extract (62.84% and 46.43% inhibition, respectively) was double as effective as the root extract (32.11% and 20.20%, respectively). Extracts hardly inhibited the level of COX-2 gene expression in THP-1 cells at a concentration of 25μg/mL (10.19% inhibition by FUA and 8.54% by FUR). In the hot plate test, both extracts in two doses (100 and 200mg/kg b.w.), exhibited an increase in latency time when compared with the control group (p<0.05). In the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation test, FUA at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg b.w., and FUR at 200mg/kg, were able to significantly reduce the mean maximal swelling of rat paw until 6h of treatment. Indomethacin, FUA, and FUR extracts significantly decreased inflammation score and this effect was more pronounced after 24h, compared to the control group (p<0.05).
The observed results of in vitro and, for the first time, in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of meadowsweet extracts, provide support of the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of different inflammatory conditions. Further investigation of the anti-inflammatory compounds could reveal the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of these extracts.