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Association of anandamide with altered binocular depth inversion illusion in schizophrenia.
World J Biol Psychiatry 2017; 18(6):483-488WJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII) represents an illusion of visual perception that involves higher-order visual and cognitive processes. Its impairment has been linked to psychotic conditions and identified as a marker for at-risk mental states. The endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in various neurophysiological processes. One of its key components, anandamide, is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Little is known about its impact on BDII alterations. Therefore, we explored associations between BDII and anandamide levels.

METHODS

BDII was conducted and blood and CSF were taken in 28 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia (SZ) patients and 81 healthy controls (HC). Serum and CSF anandamide levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

BDII scores were significantly elevated in SZ versus HC, indicating a disruption of illusionary revision of percepts in SZ. Anandamide levels were significantly higher in CSF of SZ compared to HC, while serum anandamide was not. However, we found specific association differences of anandamide levels and BDII scores between schizophrenia patients and controls in serum.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings support the hypothesis of an involvement of anandamide in cognitive processes impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with a protective effect of elevated anandamide levels herein.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.b Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy , Heidelberg University , Heidelberg , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.c Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , Mannheim , Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27734750

Citation

Reuter, Anne R., et al. "Association of Anandamide With Altered Binocular Depth Inversion Illusion in Schizophrenia." The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 6, 2017, pp. 483-488.
Reuter AR, Bumb JM, Mueller JK, et al. Association of anandamide with altered binocular depth inversion illusion in schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2017;18(6):483-488.
Reuter, A. R., Bumb, J. M., Mueller, J. K., Rohleder, C., Pahlisch, F., Hanke, F., ... Schwarz, E. (2017). Association of anandamide with altered binocular depth inversion illusion in schizophrenia. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, 18(6), pp. 483-488. doi:10.1080/15622975.2016.1246750.
Reuter AR, et al. Association of Anandamide With Altered Binocular Depth Inversion Illusion in Schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2017;18(6):483-488. PubMed PMID: 27734750.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association of anandamide with altered binocular depth inversion illusion in schizophrenia. AU - Reuter,Anne R, AU - Bumb,J Malte, AU - Mueller,Juliane K, AU - Rohleder,Cathrin, AU - Pahlisch,Franziska, AU - Hanke,Franziska, AU - Arens,Elisabeth, AU - Leweke,F Markus, AU - Koethe,Dagmar, AU - Schwarz,Emanuel, Y1 - 2016/11/11/ PY - 2016/10/14/pubmed PY - 2018/4/24/medline PY - 2016/10/14/entrez KW - BDII KW - Binocular depth inversion illusion KW - anandamide KW - endocannabinoids KW - schizophrenia SP - 483 EP - 488 JF - The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry JO - World J. Biol. Psychiatry VL - 18 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII) represents an illusion of visual perception that involves higher-order visual and cognitive processes. Its impairment has been linked to psychotic conditions and identified as a marker for at-risk mental states. The endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in various neurophysiological processes. One of its key components, anandamide, is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Little is known about its impact on BDII alterations. Therefore, we explored associations between BDII and anandamide levels. METHODS: BDII was conducted and blood and CSF were taken in 28 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia (SZ) patients and 81 healthy controls (HC). Serum and CSF anandamide levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: BDII scores were significantly elevated in SZ versus HC, indicating a disruption of illusionary revision of percepts in SZ. Anandamide levels were significantly higher in CSF of SZ compared to HC, while serum anandamide was not. However, we found specific association differences of anandamide levels and BDII scores between schizophrenia patients and controls in serum. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis of an involvement of anandamide in cognitive processes impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with a protective effect of elevated anandamide levels herein. SN - 1814-1412 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27734750/Association_of_anandamide_with_altered_binocular_depth_inversion_illusion_in_schizophrenia_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15622975.2016.1246750 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -