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Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164242.Plos

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness.

METHODS

Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4.

RESULTS

A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared with C. albicans wild-type strain SC5314. Interestingly, the regression analysis showed that factors such as antibiotic usage, birth weight, inhaler use, brushing frequency, and daycare attendance had no significant effect on the oral carriage of C. albicans in the S-ECC children.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results reveal that both the child with S-ECC and the mother were highly infected with C. albicans, while most of the strains were genetically related, suggesting that the mother might be a source for C. albicans acquisition in the oral cavity of children affected by the disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Department of Dentistry, North Sichuan Medical University, Sichuan, China.Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.School of Dentistry, Peking University, Beijing, China.Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Genomics Research Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry & Community Oral Health Divisions, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27741258

Citation

Xiao, Jin, et al. "Candida Albicans Carriage in Children With Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 10, 2016, pp. e0164242.
Xiao J, Moon Y, Li L, et al. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164242.
Xiao, J., Moon, Y., Li, L., Rustchenko, E., Wakabayashi, H., Zhao, X., Feng, C., Gill, S. R., McLaren, S., Malmstrom, H., Ren, Y., Quivey, R., Koo, H., & Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D. T. (2016). Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness. PloS One, 11(10), e0164242. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164242
Xiao J, et al. Candida Albicans Carriage in Children With Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164242. PubMed PMID: 27741258.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness. AU - Xiao,Jin, AU - Moon,Yonghwi, AU - Li,Lihua, AU - Rustchenko,Elena, AU - Wakabayashi,Hironao, AU - Zhao,Xiaoyi, AU - Feng,Changyong, AU - Gill,Steven R, AU - McLaren,Sean, AU - Malmstrom,Hans, AU - Ren,Yanfang, AU - Quivey,Robert, AU - Koo,Hyun, AU - Kopycka-Kedzierawski,Dorota T, Y1 - 2016/10/14/ PY - 2016/07/25/received PY - 2016/08/26/accepted PY - 2016/10/15/entrez PY - 2016/10/16/pubmed PY - 2017/5/23/medline SP - e0164242 EP - e0164242 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 11 IS - 10 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. METHODS: Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. RESULTS: A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared with C. albicans wild-type strain SC5314. Interestingly, the regression analysis showed that factors such as antibiotic usage, birth weight, inhaler use, brushing frequency, and daycare attendance had no significant effect on the oral carriage of C. albicans in the S-ECC children. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that both the child with S-ECC and the mother were highly infected with C. albicans, while most of the strains were genetically related, suggesting that the mother might be a source for C. albicans acquisition in the oral cavity of children affected by the disease. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27741258/Candida_albicans_Carriage_in_Children_with_Severe_Early_Childhood_Caries__S_ECC__and_Maternal_Relatedness_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164242 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -