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Energy density of meals and snacks in the British diet in relation to overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.
Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct; 116(8):1479-1489.BJ

Abstract

This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED. After adjustment for potential confounders, in both men and women, meal ED based on EI contribution showed positive associations with BMI (β=0·34; 95% CI 0·06, 0·62 and β=0·31; 95% CI 0·01, 0·61, respectively) and WC (β=0·96; 95% CI 0·27, 1·66 and β=0·67; 95% CI 0·04, 1·30, respectively). In addition, meal ED based on time was positively associated with WC in men (β=0·59; 95% CI 0·07, 1·10) and snack ED based on time was positively associated with BMI in women (β=0·15; 95% CI 0·04, 0·27). In analyses in which only acceptable EI reporters were included, similar results were obtained. In conclusion, the findings suggest stronger associations of meal ED with overall diet quality, BMI and WC compared with snack ED.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition,School of Human Cultures,University of Shiga Prefecture,Hikone,Shiga 522 8533,Japan.2Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health,Ulster University,Coleraine BT52 1SA,UK.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27751190

Citation

Murakami, Kentaro, and M Barbara E. Livingstone. "Energy Density of Meals and Snacks in the British Diet in Relation to Overall Diet Quality, BMI and Waist Circumference: Findings From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 116, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1479-1489.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Energy density of meals and snacks in the British diet in relation to overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(8):1479-1489.
Murakami, K., & Livingstone, M. B. (2016). Energy density of meals and snacks in the British diet in relation to overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. The British Journal of Nutrition, 116(8), 1479-1489.
Murakami K, Livingstone MB. Energy Density of Meals and Snacks in the British Diet in Relation to Overall Diet Quality, BMI and Waist Circumference: Findings From the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(8):1479-1489. PubMed PMID: 27751190.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy density of meals and snacks in the British diet in relation to overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Livingstone,M Barbara E, Y1 - 2016/10/18/ PY - 2016/10/22/pubmed PY - 2017/5/20/medline PY - 2016/10/22/entrez KW - ED energy density KW - EER estimated energy requirement KW - EI energy intake KW - HDI healthy diet indicator KW - MDS Mediterranean diet score KW - NDNS National Diet and Nutrition Survey KW - WC waist circumference KW - Diet quality KW - Meals KW - Obesity KW - Snacks SP - 1479 EP - 1489 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 116 IS - 8 N2 - This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED. After adjustment for potential confounders, in both men and women, meal ED based on EI contribution showed positive associations with BMI (β=0·34; 95% CI 0·06, 0·62 and β=0·31; 95% CI 0·01, 0·61, respectively) and WC (β=0·96; 95% CI 0·27, 1·66 and β=0·67; 95% CI 0·04, 1·30, respectively). In addition, meal ED based on time was positively associated with WC in men (β=0·59; 95% CI 0·07, 1·10) and snack ED based on time was positively associated with BMI in women (β=0·15; 95% CI 0·04, 0·27). In analyses in which only acceptable EI reporters were included, similar results were obtained. In conclusion, the findings suggest stronger associations of meal ED with overall diet quality, BMI and WC compared with snack ED. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27751190/Energy_density_of_meals_and_snacks_in_the_British_diet_in_relation_to_overall_diet_quality_BMI_and_waist_circumference:_findings_from_the_National_Diet_and_Nutrition_Survey_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114516003573/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -