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Cross-Neutralisation of In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms by Different Antivenoms.
Toxins (Basel) 2016; 8(10)T

Abstract

There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV). The chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation was used for this study. Antivenom was added to the organ bath 20 min prior to venom. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Bungarus caeruleus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms was neutralised by all antivenoms except TCAV, which did not neutralise pre-synaptic activity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Ophiophagus hannah was neutralised by all antivenoms, and Naja kaouthia by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Notechis scutatus was neutralised by all antivenoms, except TCAV, which only partially neutralised pre-synaptic activity. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Oxyuranus scutellatus was neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, but TCAV and IPAV only neutralised post-synaptic neurotoxicity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Acanthophis antarcticus was neutralised by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pseudonaja textillis post-synaptic neurotoxicity was only neutralised by APAV. The α-neurotoxins were neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, and taipoxin by all antivenoms except IPAV. Antivenoms raised against venoms with post-synaptic neurotoxic activity (TCAV) cross-neutralised the post-synaptic activity of multiple snake venoms. Antivenoms raised against pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxic venoms (TNPAV, IPAV, APAV) cross-neutralised both activities of Asian and Australian venoms. While acknowledging the limitations of adding antivenom prior to venom in an in vitro preparation, cross-neutralization of neurotoxicity means that antivenoms from one region may be effective in other regions which do not have effective antivenoms. TCAV only neutralized post-synaptic neurotoxicity and is potentially useful in distinguishing pre-synaptic and post-synaptic effects in the chick biventer cervicis preparation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. anjana.silva@monash.edu. Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura 50008, Sri Lanka. anjana.silva@monash.edu.Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. wayne.hodgson@monash.edu.Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. geoff.isbister@gmail.com. Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2298, Australia. geoff.isbister@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27763543

Citation

Silva, Anjana, et al. "Cross-Neutralisation of in Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms By Different Antivenoms." Toxins, vol. 8, no. 10, 2016.
Silva A, Hodgson WC, Isbister GK. Cross-Neutralisation of In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms by Different Antivenoms. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8(10).
Silva, A., Hodgson, W. C., & Isbister, G. K. (2016). Cross-Neutralisation of In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms by Different Antivenoms. Toxins, 8(10).
Silva A, Hodgson WC, Isbister GK. Cross-Neutralisation of in Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms By Different Antivenoms. Toxins (Basel). 2016 10 18;8(10) PubMed PMID: 27763543.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cross-Neutralisation of In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Asian and Australian Snake Neurotoxins and Venoms by Different Antivenoms. AU - Silva,Anjana, AU - Hodgson,Wayne C, AU - Isbister,Geoffrey K, Y1 - 2016/10/18/ PY - 2016/08/10/received PY - 2016/09/22/revised PY - 2016/10/01/accepted PY - 2016/10/21/pubmed PY - 2017/11/9/medline PY - 2016/10/21/entrez KW - antivenom KW - cross-neutralisation KW - neurotoxicity KW - snake KW - venom JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 8 IS - 10 N2 - There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV). The chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation was used for this study. Antivenom was added to the organ bath 20 min prior to venom. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Bungarus caeruleus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms was neutralised by all antivenoms except TCAV, which did not neutralise pre-synaptic activity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Ophiophagus hannah was neutralised by all antivenoms, and Naja kaouthia by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Notechis scutatus was neutralised by all antivenoms, except TCAV, which only partially neutralised pre-synaptic activity. Pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Oxyuranus scutellatus was neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, but TCAV and IPAV only neutralised post-synaptic neurotoxicity. Post-synaptic neurotoxicity of Acanthophis antarcticus was neutralised by all antivenoms except IPAV. Pseudonaja textillis post-synaptic neurotoxicity was only neutralised by APAV. The α-neurotoxins were neutralised by TNPAV and APAV, and taipoxin by all antivenoms except IPAV. Antivenoms raised against venoms with post-synaptic neurotoxic activity (TCAV) cross-neutralised the post-synaptic activity of multiple snake venoms. Antivenoms raised against pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxic venoms (TNPAV, IPAV, APAV) cross-neutralised both activities of Asian and Australian venoms. While acknowledging the limitations of adding antivenom prior to venom in an in vitro preparation, cross-neutralization of neurotoxicity means that antivenoms from one region may be effective in other regions which do not have effective antivenoms. TCAV only neutralized post-synaptic neurotoxicity and is potentially useful in distinguishing pre-synaptic and post-synaptic effects in the chick biventer cervicis preparation. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27763543/Cross_Neutralisation_of_In_Vitro_Neurotoxicity_of_Asian_and_Australian_Snake_Neurotoxins_and_Venoms_by_Different_Antivenoms_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=toxins8100302 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -