Drinks containing anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract decrease postprandial blood glucose, insulin and incretin concentrations.J Nutr Biochem 2016; 38:154-161JN
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal. Plasma glucose, insulin and incretins (GIP and GLP-1) were measured 0-120min, and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α, together with arterial stiffness by digital volume pulse (DVP) was measured at 0 and 120min. Early plasma glucose response was significantly reduced following H-BE (n=22), relative to CON, with a mean difference (95% CI) in area over baseline (AOB) 0-30min of -0.34mmol/l.h (-0.56, -0.11, P<.005); there were no differences between the intermediate doses and placebo. Plasma insulin concentrations (AOB 0-30min) were similarly reduced. Plasma GIP concentrations (AOB 0-120min) were significantly reduced following H-BE, with a mean difference of -46.6ng/l.h (-66.7, -26.5, P<.0001) compared to CON. Plasma GLP-1 concentrations were reduced following H-BE at 90min. There were no effects on 8-isoprostane F2α or vascular function. Consumption of blackcurrant extract in amounts roughly equivalent to 100-g blackcurrants reduced postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and incretin secretion, which suggests that inclusion of blackcurrant polyphenols in foods may provide cardio-metabolic health benefits. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01706653.