An Updated Overview on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Recent Antiepileptic Drugs.Drugs R D 2016; 16(4):303-316DR
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide. We describe the relationships between serum drug concentration, clinical effect, and adverse drug reactions for each AED as well as the different analytical methods used for serum drug quantification. We discuss retrospective studies and prospective data on the serum drug concentration-efficacy of these drugs and present the pharmacokinetic parameters, oral bioavailability, reference concentration range, and active metabolites of newer AEDs. Limited data are available for recent AEDs, and we discuss the connection between drug concentrations in terms of clinical efficacy and nonresponse. Although we do not propose routine TDM, serum drug measurement can play a beneficial role in patient management and treatment individualization. Standardized studies designed to assess, in particular, concentration-efficacy-toxicity relationships for recent AEDs are urgently required.