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Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema.
Molecules. 2016 Oct 20; 21(10)M

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae).

METHODS

Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p-cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated.

RESULTS

In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma (p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil. ellengames@gmail.com.Department of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil. marinaguerreiro88@gmail.com.Department of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil. fe.paula.roncon@gmail.com.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil. pinheiro.nathalia@gmail.com.Department of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil. dupontemerson@hotmail.com.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil. fernandadtqsl@gmail.com.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil. clariceolivo@gmail.com.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil. iocalvo@uol.com.br.Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil. mmartins@usp.br.Department of Exact Science and Earth, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil. joaohglago@gmail.com. Center of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre 09606-045, SP, Brazil. joaohglago@gmail.com.Department of Bioscience, Federal University of São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, Santos 11015-020, SP, Brazil. carla.prado@unifesp.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27775634

Citation

Games, Ellen, et al. "Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated From Essential Oil From Leaves of Lippia Sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice Against Elastase-Induced Emphysema." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 21, no. 10, 2016.
Games E, Guerreiro M, Santana FR, et al. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Molecules. 2016;21(10).
Games, E., Guerreiro, M., Santana, F. R., Pinheiro, N. M., de Oliveira, E. A., Lopes, F. D., Olivo, C. R., Tibério, I. F., Martins, M. A., Lago, J. H., & Prado, C. M. (2016). Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 21(10).
Games E, et al. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated From Essential Oil From Leaves of Lippia Sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice Against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Molecules. 2016 Oct 20;21(10) PubMed PMID: 27775634.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. AU - Games,Ellen, AU - Guerreiro,Marina, AU - Santana,Fernanda R, AU - Pinheiro,Nathalia M, AU - de Oliveira,Emerson A, AU - Lopes,Fernanda D T Q S, AU - Olivo,Clarice R, AU - Tibério,Iolanda F L C, AU - Martins,Mílton A, AU - Lago,João Henrique G, AU - Prado,Carla M, Y1 - 2016/10/20/ PY - 2016/08/31/received PY - 2016/10/04/revised PY - 2016/10/12/accepted PY - 2016/10/25/pubmed PY - 2017/4/4/medline PY - 2016/10/25/entrez KW - COPD KW - carvacrol KW - elastase-induced emphysema KW - lung inflammation KW - monoterpenes KW - p-cymene KW - thymol JF - Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Molecules VL - 21 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae). METHODS: Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p-cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. RESULTS: In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma (p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects. SN - 1420-3049 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27775634/Structurally_Related_Monoterpenes_p_Cymene_Carvacrol_and_Thymol_Isolated_from_Essential_Oil_from_Leaves_of_Lippia_sidoides_Cham___Verbenaceae__Protect_Mice_against_Elastase_Induced_Emphysema_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=molecules21101390 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -