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Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Oct; 10(10):e0004981.PN

Abstract

Dengue outbreaks were first reported in East Africa in the late 1970s to early 1980s including the 1982 outbreak on the Kenyan coast. In 2011, dengue outbreaks occurred in Mandera in northern Kenya and subsequently in Mombasa city along the Kenyan coast in 2013-2014. Following laboratory confirmation of dengue fever cases, an entomologic investigation was conducted to establish the mosquito species, and densities, causing the outbreak. Affected parts of the city were identified with the help of public health officials. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using various tools, processed and screened for dengue virus (DENV) by cell culture and RT-PCR. All containers in every accessible house and compound within affected suburbs were inspected for immatures. A total of 2,065 Ae. aegypti adults were collected and 192 houses and 1,676 containers inspected. An overall house index of 22%, container index, 31.0% (indoor = 19; outdoor = 43) and Breteau index, 270.1, were observed, suggesting that the risk of dengue transmission was high. Overall, jerry cans were the most productive containers (18%), followed by drums (17%), buckets (16%), tires (14%) and tanks (10%). However, each site had specific most-productive container-types such as tanks (17%) in Kizingo; Drums in Nyali (30%) and Changamwe (33%), plastic basins (35%) in Nyali-B and plastic buckets (81%) in Ganjoni. We recommend that for effective control of the dengue vector in Mombasa city, all container types would be targeted. Measures would include proper covering of water storage containers and eliminating discarded containers outdoors through a public participatory environmental clean-up exercise. Providing reliable piped water to all households would minimize the need for water storage and reduce aquatic habitats. Isolation of DENV from male Ae. aegypti mosquitoes is a first observation in Kenya and provides further evidence that transovarial transmission may have a role in DENV circulation and/or maintenance in the environment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Arbovirus/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.Entomology and Ecology Activity, Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.Arbovirus/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya (USAMRD-K), Nairobi, Kenya.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27783626

Citation

Lutomiah, Joel, et al. "Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 10, no. 10, 2016, pp. e0004981.
Lutomiah J, Barrera R, Makio A, et al. Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(10):e0004981.
Lutomiah, J., Barrera, R., Makio, A., Mutisya, J., Koka, H., Owaka, S., Koskei, E., Nyunja, A., Eyase, F., Coldren, R., & Sang, R. (2016). Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(10), e0004981. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004981
Lutomiah J, et al. Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(10):e0004981. PubMed PMID: 27783626.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations. AU - Lutomiah,Joel, AU - Barrera,Roberto, AU - Makio,Albina, AU - Mutisya,James, AU - Koka,Hellen, AU - Owaka,Samuel, AU - Koskei,Edith, AU - Nyunja,Albert, AU - Eyase,Fredrick, AU - Coldren,Rodney, AU - Sang,Rosemary, Y1 - 2016/10/26/ PY - 2016/03/13/received PY - 2016/08/16/accepted PY - 2016/10/27/pubmed PY - 2017/6/7/medline PY - 2016/10/27/entrez SP - e0004981 EP - e0004981 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 10 IS - 10 N2 - Dengue outbreaks were first reported in East Africa in the late 1970s to early 1980s including the 1982 outbreak on the Kenyan coast. In 2011, dengue outbreaks occurred in Mandera in northern Kenya and subsequently in Mombasa city along the Kenyan coast in 2013-2014. Following laboratory confirmation of dengue fever cases, an entomologic investigation was conducted to establish the mosquito species, and densities, causing the outbreak. Affected parts of the city were identified with the help of public health officials. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using various tools, processed and screened for dengue virus (DENV) by cell culture and RT-PCR. All containers in every accessible house and compound within affected suburbs were inspected for immatures. A total of 2,065 Ae. aegypti adults were collected and 192 houses and 1,676 containers inspected. An overall house index of 22%, container index, 31.0% (indoor = 19; outdoor = 43) and Breteau index, 270.1, were observed, suggesting that the risk of dengue transmission was high. Overall, jerry cans were the most productive containers (18%), followed by drums (17%), buckets (16%), tires (14%) and tanks (10%). However, each site had specific most-productive container-types such as tanks (17%) in Kizingo; Drums in Nyali (30%) and Changamwe (33%), plastic basins (35%) in Nyali-B and plastic buckets (81%) in Ganjoni. We recommend that for effective control of the dengue vector in Mombasa city, all container types would be targeted. Measures would include proper covering of water storage containers and eliminating discarded containers outdoors through a public participatory environmental clean-up exercise. Providing reliable piped water to all households would minimize the need for water storage and reduce aquatic habitats. Isolation of DENV from male Ae. aegypti mosquitoes is a first observation in Kenya and provides further evidence that transovarial transmission may have a role in DENV circulation and/or maintenance in the environment. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27783626/Dengue_Outbreak_in_Mombasa_City_Kenya_2013_2014:_Entomologic_Investigations_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004981 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -