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Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 10:CD010112CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Early dietary intakes may influence the development of allergic disease. It is important to determine if dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) given as supplements or added to infant formula prevent the development of allergy.

OBJECTIVES

To determine the effect of higher PUFA intake during infancy to prevent allergic disease.

SEARCH METHODS

We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 14 September 2015) and CINAHL (1982 to 14 September 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the use of a PUFA with no PUFA in infants for the prevention of allergy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data from the included studies. We used fixed-effect analyses. The treatment effects were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.

MAIN RESULTS

The search found 17 studies that assessed the effect of higher versus lower intake of PUFAs on allergic outcomes in infants. Only nine studies enrolling 2704 infants reported allergy outcomes that could be used in meta-analyses. Of these, there were methodological concerns for eight.In infants up to two years of age, meta-analyses found no difference in incidence of all allergy (1 study, 323 infants; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.26; risk difference (RD) -0.02, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.09; heterogeneity not applicable), asthma (3 studies, 1162 infants; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.35, I2 = 0%; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.05, I2 = 0%), dermatitis/eczema (7 studies, 1906 infants; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.06, I2 = 0%; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, I2 = 0%) or food allergy (3 studies, 915 infants; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.19, I2 = 63%; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, I2 = 74%). There was a reduction in allergic rhinitis (2 studies, 594 infants; RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.96, I2 = 6%; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.00, I2 = 54%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 25, 95% CI 13 to ∞).In children aged two to five years, meta-analysis found no difference in incidence of all allergic disease (2 studies, 154 infants; RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.02, I2 = 43%; RD -0.16, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.00, I2 = 63%; NNTB 6, 95% CI 3 to ∞), asthma (1 study, 89 infants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.02; RD -0.20, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.02; heterogeneity not applicable; NNTB 5, 95% CI 3 to 50), dermatitis/eczema (2 studies, 154 infants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.24, I2 = 0%; RD -0.09 95% CI -0.22 to 0.04, I2 = 24%) or food allergy (1 study, 65 infants; RR 2.27, 95% CI 0.25 to 20.68; RD 0.05, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.16; heterogeneity not applicable).In children aged two to five years, meta-analysis found no difference in prevalence of all allergic disease (2 studies, 633 infants; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.19, I2 = 36%; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.07, I2 = 0%), asthma (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.53, I2 = 0%; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.09, I2 = 0%), dermatitis/eczema (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09, I2 = 0%; RD -0.04 95% CI -0.11 to 0.02, I2 = 0%), allergic rhinitis (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.25, I2 = 0%; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.08, I2 = 0%) or food allergy (1 study, 119 infants; RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.19; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.00; heterogeneity not applicable; NNTB 10, 95% CI 5 to ∞).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

There is no evidence that PUFA supplementation in infancy has an effect on infant or childhood allergy, asthma, dermatitis/eczema or food allergy. However, the quality of evidence was very low. There was insufficient evidence to determine an effect on allergic rhinitis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Newborn Care, Royal Hospital for Women, Barker Street, Randwick, NSW, Australia, 2031.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27788565

Citation

Schindler, Tim, et al. "Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Infancy for the Prevention of Allergy." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 10, 2016, p. CD010112.
Schindler T, Sinn JK, Osborn DA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;10:CD010112.
Schindler, T., Sinn, J. K., & Osborn, D. A. (2016). Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, p. CD010112.
Schindler T, Sinn JK, Osborn DA. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Infancy for the Prevention of Allergy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 28;10:CD010112. PubMed PMID: 27788565.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy. AU - Schindler,Tim, AU - Sinn,John Kh, AU - Osborn,David A, Y1 - 2016/10/28/ PY - 2016/11/2/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline PY - 2016/11/2/entrez SP - CD010112 EP - CD010112 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Early dietary intakes may influence the development of allergic disease. It is important to determine if dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) given as supplements or added to infant formula prevent the development of allergy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of higher PUFA intake during infancy to prevent allergic disease. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 14 September 2015) and CINAHL (1982 to 14 September 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the use of a PUFA with no PUFA in infants for the prevention of allergy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data from the included studies. We used fixed-effect analyses. The treatment effects were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: The search found 17 studies that assessed the effect of higher versus lower intake of PUFAs on allergic outcomes in infants. Only nine studies enrolling 2704 infants reported allergy outcomes that could be used in meta-analyses. Of these, there were methodological concerns for eight.In infants up to two years of age, meta-analyses found no difference in incidence of all allergy (1 study, 323 infants; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.26; risk difference (RD) -0.02, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.09; heterogeneity not applicable), asthma (3 studies, 1162 infants; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.35, I2 = 0%; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.05, I2 = 0%), dermatitis/eczema (7 studies, 1906 infants; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.06, I2 = 0%; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, I2 = 0%) or food allergy (3 studies, 915 infants; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.19, I2 = 63%; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, I2 = 74%). There was a reduction in allergic rhinitis (2 studies, 594 infants; RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.96, I2 = 6%; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.00, I2 = 54%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 25, 95% CI 13 to ∞).In children aged two to five years, meta-analysis found no difference in incidence of all allergic disease (2 studies, 154 infants; RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.02, I2 = 43%; RD -0.16, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.00, I2 = 63%; NNTB 6, 95% CI 3 to ∞), asthma (1 study, 89 infants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.02; RD -0.20, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.02; heterogeneity not applicable; NNTB 5, 95% CI 3 to 50), dermatitis/eczema (2 studies, 154 infants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.24, I2 = 0%; RD -0.09 95% CI -0.22 to 0.04, I2 = 24%) or food allergy (1 study, 65 infants; RR 2.27, 95% CI 0.25 to 20.68; RD 0.05, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.16; heterogeneity not applicable).In children aged two to five years, meta-analysis found no difference in prevalence of all allergic disease (2 studies, 633 infants; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.19, I2 = 36%; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.07, I2 = 0%), asthma (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.53, I2 = 0%; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.09, I2 = 0%), dermatitis/eczema (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09, I2 = 0%; RD -0.04 95% CI -0.11 to 0.02, I2 = 0%), allergic rhinitis (2 studies, 635 infants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.25, I2 = 0%; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.08, I2 = 0%) or food allergy (1 study, 119 infants; RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.19; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.00; heterogeneity not applicable; NNTB 10, 95% CI 5 to ∞). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that PUFA supplementation in infancy has an effect on infant or childhood allergy, asthma, dermatitis/eczema or food allergy. However, the quality of evidence was very low. There was insufficient evidence to determine an effect on allergic rhinitis. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27788565/Polyunsaturated_fatty_acid_supplementation_in_infancy_for_the_prevention_of_allergy_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010112.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -