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Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures.
Anim Cogn 2017; 20(1):43-51AC

Abstract

Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic. petr-vesely@seznam.cz.Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Medical University of Vienna and University of Vienna, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27796660

Citation

Bílá, Kateřina, et al. "Responses of Urban Crows to Con- and Hetero-specific Alarm Calls in Predator and Non-predator Zoo Enclosures." Animal Cognition, vol. 20, no. 1, 2017, pp. 43-51.
Bílá K, Beránková J, Veselý P, et al. Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures. Anim Cogn. 2017;20(1):43-51.
Bílá, K., Beránková, J., Veselý, P., Bugnyar, T., & Schwab, C. (2017). Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures. Animal Cognition, 20(1), pp. 43-51. doi:10.1007/s10071-016-1047-5.
Bílá K, et al. Responses of Urban Crows to Con- and Hetero-specific Alarm Calls in Predator and Non-predator Zoo Enclosures. Anim Cogn. 2017;20(1):43-51. PubMed PMID: 27796660.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures. AU - Bílá,Kateřina, AU - Beránková,Jana, AU - Veselý,Petr, AU - Bugnyar,Thomas, AU - Schwab,Christine, Y1 - 2016/10/31/ PY - 2016/04/27/received PY - 2016/10/17/accepted PY - 2016/10/12/revised PY - 2016/11/1/pubmed PY - 2017/12/9/medline PY - 2016/11/1/entrez KW - Alarm call KW - Carrion crow KW - Communication KW - Conspecific signal KW - Hetero-specific signal KW - Inter-specific signalling KW - Predator avoidance SP - 43 EP - 51 JF - Animal cognition JO - Anim Cogn VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound. SN - 1435-9456 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27796660/Responses_of_urban_crows_to_con__and_hetero_specific_alarm_calls_in_predator_and_non_predator_zoo_enclosures_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-016-1047-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -