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Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 12; 104(6):1534-1544.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD.

DESIGN

The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way-crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS

Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [-5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and -5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [-3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and -4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P < 0.001) and 0.83% (P = 0.003), respectively]. Although both whey protein and calcium caseinate significantly lowered total cholesterol [-0.26 mmol/L (P = 0.013) and -0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.042), respectively], only whey protein decreased triacylglycerol (-0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.025) compared with the effect of the control. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were reduced after whey protein consumption (P = 0.011) and after calcium-caseinate consumption (P = 0.039), respectively, compared with after control intake.

CONCLUSIONS

The consumption of unhydrolyzed milk proteins (56 g/d) for 8 wk improved vascular reactivity, biomarkers of endothelial function, and lipid risk factors. Whey-protein supplementation also lowered 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP. These results may have important implications for public health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090842.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, and. Food Production and Quality Research Division, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom; and.Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, and.Food Production and Quality Research Division, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom; and.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, and j.a.lovegrove@reading.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27797709

Citation

Fekete, Ágnes A., et al. "Whey Protein Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Endothelial Function and Lipid Biomarkers in Adults With Prehypertension and Mild Hypertension: Results From the Chronic Whey2Go Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1534-1544.
Fekete ÁA, Giromini C, Chatzidiakou Y, et al. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(6):1534-1544.
Fekete, Á. A., Giromini, C., Chatzidiakou, Y., Givens, D. I., & Lovegrove, J. A. (2016). Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(6), 1534-1544.
Fekete ÁA, et al. Whey Protein Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Endothelial Function and Lipid Biomarkers in Adults With Prehypertension and Mild Hypertension: Results From the Chronic Whey2Go Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(6):1534-1544. PubMed PMID: 27797709.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial. AU - Fekete,Ágnes A, AU - Giromini,Carlotta, AU - Chatzidiakou,Yianna, AU - Givens,D Ian, AU - Lovegrove,Julie A, Y1 - 2016/10/26/ PY - 2016/05/10/received PY - 2016/09/21/accepted PY - 2016/11/1/pubmed PY - 2017/6/15/medline PY - 2016/11/1/entrez KW - angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition KW - augmentation index KW - blood pressure KW - cardiometabolic health KW - caseinate KW - dairy KW - flow-mediated dilatation KW - milk protein KW - vascular function KW - whey SP - 1534 EP - 1544 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 104 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD. DESIGN: The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way-crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [-5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and -5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [-3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and -4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P < 0.001) and 0.83% (P = 0.003), respectively]. Although both whey protein and calcium caseinate significantly lowered total cholesterol [-0.26 mmol/L (P = 0.013) and -0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.042), respectively], only whey protein decreased triacylglycerol (-0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.025) compared with the effect of the control. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were reduced after whey protein consumption (P = 0.011) and after calcium-caseinate consumption (P = 0.039), respectively, compared with after control intake. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of unhydrolyzed milk proteins (56 g/d) for 8 wk improved vascular reactivity, biomarkers of endothelial function, and lipid risk factors. Whey-protein supplementation also lowered 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP. These results may have important implications for public health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090842. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27797709/Whey_protein_lowers_blood_pressure_and_improves_endothelial_function_and_lipid_biomarkers_in_adults_with_prehypertension_and_mild_hypertension:_results_from_the_chronic_Whey2Go_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.137919 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -