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Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 12; 104(6):1545-1553.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence.

OBJECTIVE

We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake.

DESIGN

Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records.

RESULTS

Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P < 0.05) during ER but not significantly different on day 3 (P = 0.557). Subjective appetite was greater during ER on the morning of day 2 (P < 0.05) but was not significantly different thereafter (P > 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 17-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.School of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom l.james@lboro.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27806971

Citation

Clayton, David J., et al. "Effect of 24-h Severe Energy Restriction On Appetite Regulation and Ad Libitum Energy Intake in Lean Men and Women." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1545-1553.
Clayton DJ, Burrell K, Mynott G, et al. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(6):1545-1553.
Clayton, D. J., Burrell, K., Mynott, G., Creese, M., Skidmore, N., Stensel, D. J., & James, L. J. (2016). Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(6), 1545-1553.
Clayton DJ, et al. Effect of 24-h Severe Energy Restriction On Appetite Regulation and Ad Libitum Energy Intake in Lean Men and Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(6):1545-1553. PubMed PMID: 27806971.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. AU - Clayton,David J, AU - Burrell,Kirsty, AU - Mynott,Georgina, AU - Creese,Mark, AU - Skidmore,Nicola, AU - Stensel,David J, AU - James,Lewis J, Y1 - 2016/11/02/ PY - 2016/05/17/received PY - 2016/10/03/accepted PY - 2016/11/4/pubmed PY - 2017/6/15/medline PY - 2016/11/4/entrez KW - alternate-day fasting KW - appetite hormones KW - calorie restriction KW - dieting KW - energy balance KW - intermittent fasting KW - weight management SP - 1545 EP - 1553 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 104 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. OBJECTIVE: We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. DESIGN: Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. RESULTS: Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P < 0.05) during ER but not significantly different on day 3 (P = 0.557). Subjective appetite was greater during ER on the morning of day 2 (P < 0.05) but was not significantly different thereafter (P > 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 17-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27806971/Effect_of_24_h_severe_energy_restriction_on_appetite_regulation_and_ad_libitum_energy_intake_in_lean_men_and_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.136937 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -