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Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?
Brain Cogn. 2017 02; 111:86-94.BC

Abstract

This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the catgory of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for the Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition, Maharishi University of Management, 1000 North 4th Street, Fairfield, IA 52557, United States. Electronic address: ftravis@mum.edu.Center for the Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition, Maharishi University of Management, 1000 North 4th Street, Fairfield, IA 52557, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27816783

Citation

Travis, Frederick, and Niyazi Parim. "Default Mode Network Activation and Transcendental Meditation Practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?" Brain and Cognition, vol. 111, 2017, pp. 86-94.
Travis F, Parim N. Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending? Brain Cogn. 2017;111:86-94.
Travis, F., & Parim, N. (2017). Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending? Brain and Cognition, 111, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2016.08.009
Travis F, Parim N. Default Mode Network Activation and Transcendental Meditation Practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending. Brain Cogn. 2017;111:86-94. PubMed PMID: 27816783.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending? AU - Travis,Frederick, AU - Parim,Niyazi, Y1 - 2016/11/02/ PY - 2016/06/11/received PY - 2016/08/26/revised PY - 2016/08/31/accepted PY - 2016/11/7/pubmed PY - 2017/7/20/medline PY - 2016/11/7/entrez KW - Automatic Self-Transcending KW - DMN KW - Focused Attention KW - Frontal KW - Theta KW - Transcendental Meditation KW - eLORETA SP - 86 EP - 94 JF - Brain and cognition JO - Brain Cogn VL - 111 N2 - This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the catgory of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations. SN - 1090-2147 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27816783/Default_mode_network_activation_and_Transcendental_Meditation_practice:_Focused_Attention_or_Automatic_Self_transcending L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-2626(16)30098-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -