[Cutaneous manifestations in renal diseases].Hautarzt 2016; 67(12):960-969H
In addition to general skin changes like pallor or dryness and the frequent, often excruciating nephrogenic pruritus, specific diseases in patients with renal failure may occur. Acquired perforating dermatoses are usually also highly pruritic. Calciphylaxis is a severe disease with poor prognosis. Nonhealing wounds with superinfection and progression to sepsis are characteristic. Bullous lesions can be caused by disturbances in porphyrin metabolism. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a disease which was first described in 2000. Its incidence is already on the decline. Furthermore, this article provides an overview of systemic diseases which have both skin symptoms and kidney changes. These include connective tissue diseases, vasculitis or sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. After a kidney transplantation, particular attention must be paid to the development of skin tumors and infections. The last part of this article is dedicated to genodermatoses with skin and renal involvement, where numerous causative mutations have already been characterized. Knowing the correlations of characteristic skin symptoms and specific, potentially life-threatening kidney disease is important in order to initiate further investigations and steps such as referral to nephrologists at an early stage.