Interaction between endogenous carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in the mechanism of gastroprotection against acute aspirin-induced gastric damage.Pharmacol Res. 2016 12; 114:235-250.PR
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is mainly recognized as painkiller or anti-inflammatory drug. However, ASA causes serious side effects towards gastrointestinal (GI) tract which limits its usefulness. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been described to act as important endogenous messengers and mediators of gastroprotection but whether they can interact in gastroprotection against acute ASA-induced gastric damage remains unknown. In this study male Wistar rats were pretreated with 1) vehicle (saline, i.g.), 2) tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2, 5mg/kg i.g.), 3) sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 5mg/kg i.g.), 4) zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 10mg/kg i.p.), 5) D,L-propargylglycine (PAG, 30mg/kg i.g.), 6) ZnPP combined with NaHS, 7) PAG combined with CORM-2 or 8) 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10mg/kg i.p.) combined with CORM-2 or NaHS and 30min later ASA was administered i.g. in a single dose of 125mg/kg. After 1h, gastric blood flow (GBF) was determined by H2 gas clearance technique and gastric lesions were assessed by planimetry and histology. CO content in gastric mucosa and COHb concentration in blood were determined by gas chromatography and H2S production was assessed in gastric mucosa using methylene blue method. Protein and/or mRNA expression for cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), heme oxygenase (HO)-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor-alpha (HIF)-1α, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by Western blot or real-time PCR, respectively. ASA caused hemorrhagic gastric mucosal damage and significantly decreased GBF, H2S production, CO content, mRNA or protein expression for CSE, 3-MST, HO-2 and increased mRNA and/or protein expression for CBS, HO-1, Nrf-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, IL-1β, COX-2 in gastric mucosa and COHb concentration in blood. Pretreatment with CORM-2 or NaHS but not with PAG decreased ASA-damage and increased GBF. ZnPP reversed protective and hyperemic effect of NaHS but PAG failed to affect CORM-2-induced gastroprotection. CORM-2 elevated CO content, mRNA or protein expression for HO-1, Nrf-2, and decreased expression of CBS, HIF-1α, COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS, the H2S production in gastric mucosa and COHb concentration in blood. NaHS raised mRNA or protein expression for CSE, COX-1 and decreased mRNA expression for IL-1β and COHb level in blood. We conclude that CO is involved in gastroprotection induced by H2S while beneficial protective action of CO released from CORM-2 in gastric mucosa seems to be H2S-independent. In contrast to H2S, CO ameliorates hypoxia, regulates Nrf-2 expression but similarly to H2S acts on sGC-dependent manner to restore gastric microcirculation and exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in gastric mucosa compromised by ASA.