iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of myofibrillar contents and relevant synthesis and proteolytic proteins in soleus muscle of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus).Proteome Sci 2016; 14:16PS
Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) deviate from significant increase of protein catabolism and loss of myofibrillar contents during long period of hibernation inactivity.
Here we use iTRAQ based quantitative analysis to examine proteomic changes in the soleus of squirrels in pre-hibernation, hibernation and post-hibernation states. The total proteolysis rate of soleus was measured by the release of the essential amino acid tyrosine from isolated muscles. Immunofluorescent analysis was used to determine muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Western blot was used for the validation of the quantitative proteomic analysis.
The proteomic responses to hibernation had a 0.4- to 0.8-fold decrease in the myofibrillar contractile protein levels of myosin-3, myosin-13 and actin, but a 2.1-fold increase in myosin-2 compared to pre-hibernation group. Regulatory proteins such as troponin C and tropomodulin-1 were 1.4-fold up-regulated and 0.7-fold down-regulated, respectively, in hibernation compared to pre-hibernation group. Moreover, 10 proteins with proteolytic function in hibernation, which was less than 14 proteins in the post-hibernation group, were up-regulated relative to the pre-hibernation group. The total proteolysis rates of soleus in hibernation and post-hibernation groups were significantly inhibited as compared with pre-hibernation group.
These findings suggest that the myofibrillar remodeling and partial suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis were likely responsible for preventing skeletal muscle atrophy during prolonged disuse in hibernation. This is the first study where the myofibrillar contents and relevant synthesis and proteolytic proteins in slow soleus was discussed based on proteomic investigation performed on wild Daurian ground squirrels. Our results lay the foundation for further research in preventing disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mammals.