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Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species.
ScientificWorldJournal 2016; 2016:7393620S

Abstract

Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism. A more detailed discussion of β-carotene follows, with a focus on factors impacting bioavailability and its conversion to vitamin A. Finally, the literature on how animals utilize β-carotene is reviewed individually for several species and classes of animals. We conclude that β-carotene conversion to vitamin A is variable and dependent on a number of factors, which are important to consider in the formulation and assessment of diets. Omnivores and herbivores are more efficient at converting β-carotene to vitamin A than carnivores. Absorption and accumulation of β-carotene in tissues vary with species and are poorly understood. More comparative and mechanistic studies are required in this area to improve the understanding of β-carotene metabolism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27833936

Citation

Green, Alice S., and Andrea J. Fascetti. "Meeting the Vitamin a Requirement: the Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species." TheScientificWorldJournal, vol. 2016, 2016, p. 7393620.
Green AS, Fascetti AJ. Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species. ScientificWorldJournal. 2016;2016:7393620.
Green, A. S., & Fascetti, A. J. (2016). Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species. TheScientificWorldJournal, 2016, p. 7393620.
Green AS, Fascetti AJ. Meeting the Vitamin a Requirement: the Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species. ScientificWorldJournal. 2016;2016:7393620. PubMed PMID: 27833936.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species. AU - Green,Alice S, AU - Fascetti,Andrea J, Y1 - 2016/10/19/ PY - 2016/05/20/received PY - 2016/08/29/accepted PY - 2016/11/12/entrez PY - 2016/11/12/pubmed PY - 2017/11/14/medline SP - 7393620 EP - 7393620 JF - TheScientificWorldJournal JO - ScientificWorldJournal VL - 2016 N2 - Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism. A more detailed discussion of β-carotene follows, with a focus on factors impacting bioavailability and its conversion to vitamin A. Finally, the literature on how animals utilize β-carotene is reviewed individually for several species and classes of animals. We conclude that β-carotene conversion to vitamin A is variable and dependent on a number of factors, which are important to consider in the formulation and assessment of diets. Omnivores and herbivores are more efficient at converting β-carotene to vitamin A than carnivores. Absorption and accumulation of β-carotene in tissues vary with species and are poorly understood. More comparative and mechanistic studies are required in this area to improve the understanding of β-carotene metabolism. SN - 1537-744X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27833936/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7393620 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -