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A study of leptospirosis in South African horses and associated risk factors.
Prev Vet Med 2016; 134:6-15PV

Abstract

Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces. Furthermore, associations between potential risk factors and both seropositive horses to the predominant serovar Bratislava and to Leptospira spp. were statistically evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 663 horse sera were collected and tested against a panel of 24 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. The most predominant serovars in Gauteng were Bratislava [32%, 95% CI: 29-35%]; Djasiman [10.4%, 95% CI: 8-12%] and Arborea [8.9%, 95% CI: 7-11%], in the Western Cape Province, Bratislava [27.35%, 95% CI: 23-32]; Djasiman [15.4%, 95% CI: 12-19%] and Arborea [14.5%, 95% CI: 11-18%] and in KwaZulu-Natal, Bratislava [39.4%, 95% CI: 34-44%]; Arborea [9.6%, 95% CI: 7-13%]; and Tarassovi [7.7%, 95% CI: 5-10%] respectively. Twenty one serovars representing 17 serogroups were detected with serovar Bratislava being the most serodominant. The apparent prevalence to one or more serovars of Leptospira spp. at a serum dilution of 1:100 in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces were 49%; 37% and 32% respectively. The true prevalence was calculated for each province taking into account the clustering effect during the sampling and was found to be between 24 and 74% in Gauteng; 26-39% in the Western Cape and 20-54% in KwaZulu-Natal. Nooitgedacht (South African horse breed) horses were found to be at greater risk of being seropositive to both serovar Bratislava (OR=5.08) and Leptospira spp. (OR=6.3). Similarly, horses residing on properties with forestry in the vicinity were found to be at greater risk of being seropositive to both serovar Bratislava (OR=9.3) and Leptospira spp. (OR=5.2). This study has shown that a high proportion of horses in South Africa are exposed to a wide range of serovars, inferring a complex epidemiology. It also describes for the first time new serovars of Leptospira in South African horses that have not previously been reported.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Veterinary Services, Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform, Lady Frere, South Africa; Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.Winelands Equine Vet, Stellenbosch, South Africa.Bacterial Serology Laboratory: ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa.Bacterial Serology Laboratory: ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa.Discipline of Veterinary Sciences, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland, Australia; Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address: bruce.gummow@jcu.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27836047

Citation

Simbizi, V, et al. "A Study of Leptospirosis in South African Horses and Associated Risk Factors." Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 134, 2016, pp. 6-15.
Simbizi V, Saulez MN, Potts A, et al. A study of leptospirosis in South African horses and associated risk factors. Prev Vet Med. 2016;134:6-15.
Simbizi, V., Saulez, M. N., Potts, A., Lötter, C., & Gummow, B. (2016). A study of leptospirosis in South African horses and associated risk factors. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 134, pp. 6-15. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.09.019.
Simbizi V, et al. A Study of Leptospirosis in South African Horses and Associated Risk Factors. Prev Vet Med. 2016 Nov 1;134:6-15. PubMed PMID: 27836047.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A study of leptospirosis in South African horses and associated risk factors. AU - Simbizi,V, AU - Saulez,M N, AU - Potts,A, AU - Lötter,C, AU - Gummow,B, Y1 - 2016/09/24/ PY - 2016/07/14/received PY - 2016/09/16/revised PY - 2016/09/23/accepted PY - 2016/11/13/entrez PY - 2016/11/12/pubmed PY - 2017/4/14/medline KW - Horses KW - Leptospirosis KW - Prevalence KW - Risk factors KW - Serovars KW - South Africa SP - 6 EP - 15 JF - Preventive veterinary medicine JO - Prev. Vet. Med. VL - 134 N2 - Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces. Furthermore, associations between potential risk factors and both seropositive horses to the predominant serovar Bratislava and to Leptospira spp. were statistically evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 663 horse sera were collected and tested against a panel of 24 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. The most predominant serovars in Gauteng were Bratislava [32%, 95% CI: 29-35%]; Djasiman [10.4%, 95% CI: 8-12%] and Arborea [8.9%, 95% CI: 7-11%], in the Western Cape Province, Bratislava [27.35%, 95% CI: 23-32]; Djasiman [15.4%, 95% CI: 12-19%] and Arborea [14.5%, 95% CI: 11-18%] and in KwaZulu-Natal, Bratislava [39.4%, 95% CI: 34-44%]; Arborea [9.6%, 95% CI: 7-13%]; and Tarassovi [7.7%, 95% CI: 5-10%] respectively. Twenty one serovars representing 17 serogroups were detected with serovar Bratislava being the most serodominant. The apparent prevalence to one or more serovars of Leptospira spp. at a serum dilution of 1:100 in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces were 49%; 37% and 32% respectively. The true prevalence was calculated for each province taking into account the clustering effect during the sampling and was found to be between 24 and 74% in Gauteng; 26-39% in the Western Cape and 20-54% in KwaZulu-Natal. Nooitgedacht (South African horse breed) horses were found to be at greater risk of being seropositive to both serovar Bratislava (OR=5.08) and Leptospira spp. (OR=6.3). Similarly, horses residing on properties with forestry in the vicinity were found to be at greater risk of being seropositive to both serovar Bratislava (OR=9.3) and Leptospira spp. (OR=5.2). This study has shown that a high proportion of horses in South Africa are exposed to a wide range of serovars, inferring a complex epidemiology. It also describes for the first time new serovars of Leptospira in South African horses that have not previously been reported. SN - 1873-1716 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27836047/A_study_of_leptospirosis_in_South_African_horses_and_associated_risk_factors_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167-5877(16)30392-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -