Naringin regulates glutamate-nitric oxide cGMP pathway in ammonium chloride induced neurotoxicity.Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Dec; 84:1717-1726.BP
Naringin, plant bioflavonoid extracted mainly from grapefruit and other related citrus species. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitonial injection (i.p) of NH4Cl (100mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with naringin (80mg/kg b.w.) via oral gavage. Naringin administration drastically restored the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, nitric oxide (NO), glutamate, glutamine, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, activities of liver marker enzymes, antioxidant status and sodium/potassium-ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase). In addition, naringin supplementation reverted back the pathological changes of liver, brain and kidney tissues, the expressions of Glutamine synthetase (GS), Na+/K+-ATPase, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in hyperammonemic rats. Hence, this study suggested that nargingin exhibited their protective effect against NH4Cl induced toxicity via enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation process. Take together, this study provides data that naingin effectively reduced neurotoxicity by attenuating hyperammonemia, suggesting that naringin act as a potential therapeutic agent to treat hyperammonemic rats.