Recent developments in circulating biomarkers in Parkinson's disease: the potential use of miRNAs in a clinical setting.Bioanalysis. 2016 Dec; 8(23):2497-2518.B
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 5% of the elderly population. PD diagnosis is still based on the identification of neuromotor symptoms although nonmotor manifestations emerge years prior to diagnosis. The discovery of biomarkers at the earliest stages of PD is of extreme interest. miRNAs have been considered potential biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, but only a limited number have been found to be PD related. This review focuses on the current findings in the field of circulating miRNAs in PD and the challenges surrounding clinical utility and validation. We briefly describe the more established circulating biomarkers in PD and provide a more thorough review of miRNAs differentially expressed in PD. We highlight their potential for being considered as biomarkers for diagnosis while emphasizing the challenges for adequate validation of the findings and how miRNAs can be envisioned in a clinical setting satisfying regulatory bodies.