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Effects of morning versus evening combined strength and endurance training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and serum hormone concentrations.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Dec; 41(12):1285-1294.AP

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of 24 weeks of morning versus evening same-session combined strength (S) and endurance (E) training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and resting serum testosterone and cortisol diurnal concentrations. Forty-two young men were matched and assigned to a morning (m) or evening (e) E + S or S + E group (mE + S, n = 9; mS + E, n = 9; eE + S, n = 12; and eS + E, n = 12). Participants were tested for dynamic leg press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and time to exhaustion (Texh) during an incremental cycle ergometer test both in the morning and evening, cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis and diurnal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations (0730 h; 0930 h; 1630 h; 1830 h). All groups similarly increased 1RM in the morning (14%-19%; p < 0.001) and evening (18%-24%; p < 0.001). CSA increased in all groups by week 24 (12%-20%, p < 0.01); however, during the training weeks 13-24 the evening groups gained more muscle mass (time-of-day main effect; p < 0.05). Texh increased in all groups in the morning (16%-28%; p < 0.01) and evening (18%-27%; p < 0.001), however, a main effect for the exercise order, in favor of E + S, was observed on both testing times (p < 0.051). Diurnal rhythms in testosterone and cortisol remained statistically unaltered by the training order or time. The present results indicate that combined strength and endurance training in the evening may lead to larger gains in muscle mass, while the E + S training order might be more beneficial for endurance performance development. However, training order and time seem to influence the magnitude of adaptations only when the training period exceeded 12 weeks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a University of Jyväskylä, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.a University of Jyväskylä, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.b Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University in Bratislava, 81499, Bratislava, Slovakia.c Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.d Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 6027, Joondalup, Australia.a University of Jyväskylä, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.e Central Hospital of Central Finland, 40620, Jyväskylä, Finland.a University of Jyväskylä, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland. e Central Hospital of Central Finland, 40620, Jyväskylä, Finland.a University of Jyväskylä, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27863207

Citation

Küüsmaa, Maria, et al. "Effects of Morning Versus Evening Combined Strength and Endurance Training On Physical Performance, Muscle Hypertrophy, and Serum Hormone Concentrations." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, vol. 41, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1285-1294.
Küüsmaa M, Schumann M, Sedliak M, et al. Effects of morning versus evening combined strength and endurance training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and serum hormone concentrations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(12):1285-1294.
Küüsmaa, M., Schumann, M., Sedliak, M., Kraemer, W. J., Newton, R. U., Malinen, J. P., Nyman, K., Häkkinen, A., & Häkkinen, K. (2016). Effects of morning versus evening combined strength and endurance training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and serum hormone concentrations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition Et Metabolisme, 41(12), 1285-1294.
Küüsmaa M, et al. Effects of Morning Versus Evening Combined Strength and Endurance Training On Physical Performance, Muscle Hypertrophy, and Serum Hormone Concentrations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(12):1285-1294. PubMed PMID: 27863207.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of morning versus evening combined strength and endurance training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and serum hormone concentrations. AU - Küüsmaa,Maria, AU - Schumann,Moritz, AU - Sedliak,Milan, AU - Kraemer,William J, AU - Newton,Robert U, AU - Malinen,Jari-Pekka, AU - Nyman,Kai, AU - Häkkinen,Arja, AU - Häkkinen,Keijo, PY - 2016/11/19/entrez PY - 2016/11/20/pubmed PY - 2017/2/9/medline KW - concurrent training KW - cortisol KW - effet de l’ordre KW - entraînement concurrent KW - moment du jour KW - muscle cross-sectional area KW - order effect KW - section musculaire transversale KW - testosterone KW - testostérone KW - time of day SP - 1285 EP - 1294 JF - Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme JO - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab VL - 41 IS - 12 N2 - This study investigated the effects of 24 weeks of morning versus evening same-session combined strength (S) and endurance (E) training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and resting serum testosterone and cortisol diurnal concentrations. Forty-two young men were matched and assigned to a morning (m) or evening (e) E + S or S + E group (mE + S, n = 9; mS + E, n = 9; eE + S, n = 12; and eS + E, n = 12). Participants were tested for dynamic leg press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and time to exhaustion (Texh) during an incremental cycle ergometer test both in the morning and evening, cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis and diurnal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations (0730 h; 0930 h; 1630 h; 1830 h). All groups similarly increased 1RM in the morning (14%-19%; p < 0.001) and evening (18%-24%; p < 0.001). CSA increased in all groups by week 24 (12%-20%, p < 0.01); however, during the training weeks 13-24 the evening groups gained more muscle mass (time-of-day main effect; p < 0.05). Texh increased in all groups in the morning (16%-28%; p < 0.01) and evening (18%-27%; p < 0.001), however, a main effect for the exercise order, in favor of E + S, was observed on both testing times (p < 0.051). Diurnal rhythms in testosterone and cortisol remained statistically unaltered by the training order or time. The present results indicate that combined strength and endurance training in the evening may lead to larger gains in muscle mass, while the E + S training order might be more beneficial for endurance performance development. However, training order and time seem to influence the magnitude of adaptations only when the training period exceeded 12 weeks. SN - 1715-5320 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27863207/Effects_of_morning_versus_evening_combined_strength_and_endurance_training_on_physical_performance_muscle_hypertrophy_and_serum_hormone_concentrations_ L2 - http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/apnm-2016-0271?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -