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Associations between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0166699.Plos

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

In a markedly seasonal malaria setting, the transition from the transmission-free dry season to the transmission season depends on the resurgence of the mosquito population following the start of annual rains. The sudden onset of malaria outbreaks at the start of the transmission season suggests that parasites persist during the dry season and respond to either the reappearance of vectors, or correlated events, by increasing the production of transmission stages. Here, we investigate whether Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and the correlation between gametocyte density and parasite density show seasonal variation in chronic (largely asymptomatic) carriers in eastern Sudan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We recruited and treated 123 malaria patients in the transmission season 2001. We then followed them monthly during four distinct consecutive epidemiological seasons: transmission season 1, transmission-free season, pre-clinical period, and transmission season 2. In samples collected from 25 participants who fulfilled the selection criteria of the current analysis, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RT-qPCR to quantify parasite and gametocyte densities, respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

We observed a significant increase in gametocyte density and a significantly steeper positive correlation between gametocyte density and total parasite density during the pre-clinical period compared to the preceding transmission-free season. However, there was no corresponding increase in the density or prevalence of total parasites or gametocyte prevalence. The increase in gametocyte production during the pre-clinical period supports the hypothesis that P. falciparum may respond to environmental cues, such as mosquito biting, to modulate its transmission strategy. Thus, seasonal changes may be important to ignite transmission in unstable-malaria settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan.Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute and Traditional Medicine, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan.Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hail, Baqaa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27870874

Citation

Gadalla, Amal A H., et al. "Associations Between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium Falciparum Infections." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 11, 2016, pp. e0166699.
Gadalla AA, Schneider P, Churcher TS, et al. Associations between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166699.
Gadalla, A. A., Schneider, P., Churcher, T. S., Nassir, E., Abdel-Muhsin, A. A., Ranford-Cartwright, L. C., Reece, S. E., & Babiker, H. A. (2016). Associations between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections. PloS One, 11(11), e0166699. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166699
Gadalla AA, et al. Associations Between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium Falciparum Infections. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166699. PubMed PMID: 27870874.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between Season and Gametocyte Dynamics in Chronic Plasmodium falciparum Infections. AU - Gadalla,Amal A H, AU - Schneider,Petra, AU - Churcher,Thomas S, AU - Nassir,Elkhansaa, AU - Abdel-Muhsin,Abdel-Muhsin A, AU - Ranford-Cartwright,Lisa C, AU - Reece,Sarah E, AU - Babiker,Hamza A, Y1 - 2016/11/21/ PY - 2016/04/24/received PY - 2016/11/02/accepted PY - 2016/11/22/entrez PY - 2016/11/22/pubmed PY - 2017/6/27/medline SP - e0166699 EP - e0166699 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 11 IS - 11 N2 - INTRODUCTION: In a markedly seasonal malaria setting, the transition from the transmission-free dry season to the transmission season depends on the resurgence of the mosquito population following the start of annual rains. The sudden onset of malaria outbreaks at the start of the transmission season suggests that parasites persist during the dry season and respond to either the reappearance of vectors, or correlated events, by increasing the production of transmission stages. Here, we investigate whether Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and the correlation between gametocyte density and parasite density show seasonal variation in chronic (largely asymptomatic) carriers in eastern Sudan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited and treated 123 malaria patients in the transmission season 2001. We then followed them monthly during four distinct consecutive epidemiological seasons: transmission season 1, transmission-free season, pre-clinical period, and transmission season 2. In samples collected from 25 participants who fulfilled the selection criteria of the current analysis, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RT-qPCR to quantify parasite and gametocyte densities, respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We observed a significant increase in gametocyte density and a significantly steeper positive correlation between gametocyte density and total parasite density during the pre-clinical period compared to the preceding transmission-free season. However, there was no corresponding increase in the density or prevalence of total parasites or gametocyte prevalence. The increase in gametocyte production during the pre-clinical period supports the hypothesis that P. falciparum may respond to environmental cues, such as mosquito biting, to modulate its transmission strategy. Thus, seasonal changes may be important to ignite transmission in unstable-malaria settings. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27870874/Associations_between_Season_and_Gametocyte_Dynamics_in_Chronic_Plasmodium_falciparum_Infections_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166699 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -